Help me recognize this naval action

Help me recognize this naval action

I recall reading a Wikipedia article about an Age of Sail naval combat incident between two vessels, the smaller one being attacked by the larger one. I don't remember anything about the participants except that the defending vessel, despite being severely outmanned and outgunned, managed to win with little or no casualties on their side by somehow forcing the enemy below the deck and controlling the exits, allowing only one to come out at a time. Can anyone identify the naval action based on this description?


TR-3B Anti-Gravity Spacecrafts

It doesn't exist officially. It uses highly pressured mercury accelerated by nuclear energy to produce a plasma that creates a field of anti-gravity around the ship. Conventional thrusters located at the tips of the craft allow it to perform all manner of rapid high speed maneuvers along all three axes. Interestingly, the plasma generated also reduces radar signature significantly. So it'll be almost invisible on radar & remain undetected. This literally means that it can go to any country it likes without being detected by air traffic control & air defence systems. Read more at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TR-3_Black_Manta


What happened after the Attack of Pearl Harbor

“Japanese parachute troops are reported in Honolulu,” CBS reported. “They have been sighted off Harbor Point. At least five persons have been reported killed in the city of Honolulu. The Japanese dive bombers have been making continuous attacks, apparently from a Japanese aircraft carrier. A naval engagement is reported in progress off Honolulu. And there’s one report that a Japanese warship is bombarding Pearl Harbor. Aerial dogfights are raging in the skies over Honolulu itself.”

Neither the naval battle off Honolulu nor the repeated radio reports about the Japanese paratroopers on the ground in Honolulu were true, but there was no immediate clarification, and in the days following, speculation fed a bonfire of anxiety that would rage beyond control.

In San Francisco, author and radio personality Upton Close, who was described by NBC as their “expert on the Far East,” opened his radio commentary Sunday afternoon by saying “there’s more behind this than meets the eye.”

He had picked up his phone, called the Japanese Consulate in San Francisco and asked to speak with Consul General Yoshio Muto. Instead, he was connected with Kazuyoshi Inagaki, who identified himself as the Consul’s secretary and who told Close that the Pearl Harbor attack came as a “complete surprise” to the consulate staff and that the first that he and Muto knew about it came in American radio bulletins. What happened after the attack of Pearl Harbor was wild speculation.

“That may prove to be true,” Close speculated. “It is very possible that there is a double-double cross in this business…. It is possible that this is a coup engineered by a small portion of the Japanese Navy that has gone fanatic…. It might be possible for the Japanese government to repudiate this action, to repair the injury to America.”

Though he was nurturing a conspiracy theory, he went on to accurately recall that in 1931, when the Japanese Kwantung Army had launched its offensive against the Chinese in Manchuria, the Japanese government in Tokyo had no advance knowledge of the action. Indeed, Close had verified this at the time by phoning the Japanese foreign office and speaking to the chagrinned diplomats.

Inside Japan’s consulate in San Francisco at 2622 Jackson Street, Muto and Inagaki were busily shoveling sensitive documents into fireplaces. The flames burst out of control and the fire department had to save the building.

That afternoon, Close reported, “Here on the Pacific coast where there are more Japanese than anywhere else, so far we have no word whatever of anything untoward having happened. I think we can take the word of the local San Francisco Consulate General that the Japanese community has been totally surprised by this action, and so far there is no indication here whatsoever that any sabotage has broken out or that any Japanese spies or saboteurs were warned in time to go into action.”

He reported that in Los Angeles, County Sheriff Eugene Biscailuz had “taken charge” of the city’s Little Tokyo district and “gathered up a number of volunteers and they have set up a volunteer watching post, and they’re watching the Japanese, but they haven’t had any reason to do anything. And people on both sides of the fence there are remaining calm and decent, which is certainly good news.”

At 4:10 p.m., the Jack Benny Program on NBC Red was interrupted on California affiliates with news of civilians reporting for volunteer duty, and to issue a warning about avoiding “hysteria.”

Many of the 9.7 million people of the Pacific Coast States wondered what they should be doing. The immediate fear was of air raids. The images from the newsreels of the London Blitz the previous year, the firestorms and devastation wrought by German bombs during the Battle of Britain, were deeply ingrained in the minds and imaginations of Americans. For those on the Pacific Coast, knowing that the Japanese had projected their airpower as far as Hawaii clearly suggested that they could reach Washington, Oregon, or California.

It was assumed that the best form of civil defense against air raids was a blackout—turning off all lights in the evening so as not to aid enemy bombardiers in identifying cities, bridges and other targets. Throughout the West, lights were ordered to be turned off at 11:00 p.m. Likewise, civilian radio stations went off the air, because aircraft could use radio waves to locate cities, though most people did not realize that this was why the radio was suddenly silent on the night of December 7. It was unnerving. It was scary.

At 6:56 p.m., the sky was already getting dark in Seattle when radio station KIRO, announced that “in the states of Oregon, Washington, and California…every farm house, every light of any kind in that area must be out by eleven o’clock. To test your blackout, you will have plenty of time between the hours of seven and eleven…to make arrangements to get heavy black paper to seal your windows, or heavy drapes or some- thing. . . . No lights are to be used on automobiles and no lights whatever are to be shown anywhere on the Pacific coast in the states of Oregon, Washington, and California until thirty minutes after daylight.”

As the sun rose on Monday morning, those in urban areas well knew that it had been an imperfect blackout. Many had not gotten the word that there would be a blackout and large sections of downtown areas, with their lighted neon signs, had remained bathed in their usual glow. In San Francisco, master switches plunged neighborhoods into darkness while Market Street blazed brightly. William Harrelson, the general manager of the Golden Gate Bridge District, ordered his bridge into darkness shortly after 6:00 p.m., but he turned the lights back on an hour later to prevent automobile accidents.

In the San Fernando Valley north of Los Angeles, the Lockheed Aircraft factories, including the air terminal in Burbank went dark, but they were merely patches of darkness in a twinkling sea. In many places, streetlights were on individual timers and had to be turned off individually. There had been no prior planning to get this job done, and it was still not completed by morning.

Civil Defense volunteers swung into action, but most people were simply confused by the well-intentioned air raid wardens. The Associated Press reported that a woman in San Francisco phoned the police to report “a crazy man prowling about my place shouting ‘Lights out.’”

In the composing rooms of the newspapers, typographers reached for the largest fonts they had to set the headlines that screamed “WAR,” and readers stripped the newsstands as soon as the morning papers appeared.

“Japan has asked for it,” read the editorial in the Los Angeles Times. “Now she is going to get it. It was the act of a mad dog, a gangster’s parody of every principle of international honor.”

The editorial writer at the San Francisco Chronicle, agreed, reflecting that “If war had to come, it is perhaps well that it came this way, wanton, unwarned, in fraud and under a flag of truce.”

In many cases, it was only when they got their hands on the morning newspapers that many people learned the details of the would-be blackout, and the reason why the radio stations had gone mysteriously off the air.

In Portland, The Oregonian pointed out that the state’s coastal residents awoke to the “grim realization that the mouth of the Columbia River is the closest mainland point to Japan.” At Fort Stevens, near Astoria, the U.S. Army outpost guarding the mouth of the Columbia, Colonel Clifton Irwin ordered his 18th and 249th Coastal Artillery Regiments to “fire on any enemy ship in sight.” None were seen.

Shortly after 9:00 a.m. on December 8, most Pacific Coast radio stations went live to Washington to cover Franklin Roosevelt’s speech to a joint session of Congress. Roosevelt announced that the attack on Pearl Harbor was “a day that would live in infamy,” and he asked Congress for a declaration of war.

This article on what happened after the attack of Pearl Harbor is part of our larger selection of posts about the Pearl Harbor attack. To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to Pearl Harbor.

Bill Yenne’s Panic on the Pacific is available to order now from Amazon and Barnes and Noble.


Attack and counter-attack

Blucher's sister ship, Hipper, was also damaged when she was rammed by the British destroyer Glowworm, but she was still able to help take the city of Trondheim. The light cruiser Karlsruhe led the assault on Kristiansand, but was sunk later that same day by the British submarine Truant. Her sister ship, Konigsberg, was damaged by Norwegian shore batteries at Bergen, and was finished off by British Skua naval dive bombers flying from the Orkneys the next day. She was the first major warship ever to be sunk by aircraft.

. German destroyers were able to get their troops ashore, sinking two Norwegian coast defence vessels in the process.

In the far north, at Narvik, the ten most modern German destroyers were able to get their troops ashore, sinking two Norwegian coast defence vessels in the process. The senior British officer in the area was WJ Whitworth, Vice Admiral of the Battlecruiser Squadron in HMS Renown. He had fought a fleeting engagement with the German fast battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau early on the 9th but the Germans, after being hit several times, had used superior speed to get away.

Unfortunately the Admiralty did not give Whitworth the opportunity to mount a powerful counter attack on the Germans at Narvik, and only a single destroyer flotilla was ordered in by London on 10 April. This consisted of Captain BAW Warburton-Lee's five 'H' class vessels.


Time On Ship or Submarine

Most Sailors are assigned to ships or submarines for three year periods, followed by three years of shore duty. That does not mean they will be deployed to sea for the entire three years that they are assigned to a ship or submarine. The ships and subs also spend a significant amount of time docked at their home port for regular maintenance for both machine and crew. Most ships deploy to sea duty for months at a time (usually for six months, but up to nine months). Then they return to their homeport for four or five months (during which time there will be several one or two week cruises for training purposes). One great thing about coming back home to port is you will always be near a beach town. It is something else to consider when thinking about joining the Navy.

Just because you are onshore duty assignment, doesn't mean you won't get deployed or travel to other bases around the world. The Navy will require both volunteers and non-volunteers (about 10,000 Sailors per year) to do Individual Augmentee Duty. Those selected work outside of their regular Navy job, and are deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan (usually for 12 months) to assist the Army and Marine Corps with combat missions and patrols.


President Abraham Lincoln Frees the Slaves

Lincoln said the proclamation was “essentially a war measure” with “the desired effect of depriving the Confederacy of much of its valuable laboring force.”

On this day in history, September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, freeing more than three million black slaves in the Confederate states as of January 1, 1863.

The bold move recast the Civil War as a struggle against slavery. When the war between the states began not long after Lincoln was inaugurated as the 16th president in 1861, he claimed it was not about slavery but about restoring the Union.

Despite pressure from abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally wrong, he chose to act with prudence until he could gain more widespread support from the general public for an anti-slavery policy.

He told his cabinet in July 1862 that he would issue a formal emancipation of all slaves in any rebel state that did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863. But it would exempt the loyal slaveholding border states. They convinced him not to make an announcement until after a Northern victory on the battlefield.

Five days after the Union armies prevailed at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, the first major battle to take place in the North and the bloodiest single day in American history, Lincoln declared on September 22 that all slaves in rebel areas within 100 days would be free.

The Emancipation Proclamation

None of the slave states did return to the Union. So Lincoln signed and issued the final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. It took effect and maintained “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.”

Lincoln is reported to have said: “I never in my life felt more certain that I was doing right than I do in signing this paper.” It applied only to the states that had seceded from the Union, leaving the slavery of 500,000 blacks in the loyal border states unaffected. It also exempted those parts of the Confederacy under Northern control.

It decreed the freedom of 3,100,000 of the country’s four million enslaved people, and liberated 50,000 immediately, with most of the rest emancipated as the Federal armies moved forward. The proclamation did not make former slaves citizens or compensate slave owners in the South.

“Slaves Forever Free”

It read in part: “That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free . . .

“And the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. . . .

“Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do . . .

“Order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.”

Legacy of the Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation provided for the recruitment of black military units among Union troops. As the war became one to end legal human bondage, tens of thousands of ex-slaves volunteered for the armed forces. About 180,000 African Americans served in the U.S. Army and 18,000 more in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War.

Anti-slavery nations such as France and Great Britain, which had been friendly to the Confederacy and considered recognizing it as a separate country, now found it difficult to aid the South. Lincoln’s support among the abolitionists also ensured they would not block his re-nomination in 1864. And the Republican Party was strengthened so much that it held power for the next twenty years.

The proclamation was not a law passed by Congress but a presidential order. Therefore, Lincoln favored a constitutional amendment to guarantee its perpetuity. When the 13th Amendment took effect in December 1865, slavery was abolished throughout the nation.

“A New Birth of Freedom”

Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, delivered in November 1863, referred to the proclamation and abolition of slavery as a goal of the war with the words “a new birth of freedom.” The proclamation thus added moral force to the Union cause and reinforced it politically and militarily.

The Emancipation Proclamation has assumed its rightful place among the world’s essential documents of human freedom. But Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final version was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original, official copy is enshrined in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

The anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation was commemorated as a holiday for many years, with the African American Juneteenth festival held in some states to observe it. An original copy of the proclamation was hung in the Oval Office of the White House above a bust of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and near a portrait of Abe Lincoln in 2010.

“The Emancipation Proclamation . . . is valid in law, and will be so held by the courts,” Lincoln wrote. “I think I shall not retract or repudiate it. Those who shall have tasted actual freedom I believe can never be slaves or quasi-slaves again.”


What can I do if SmartScreen warns me about a site I visit, but it's not unsafe?

From the warning page, you can choose to report this site as a safe site. Select More information, and then select the Report that this site does not contain threats link to go to the Microsoft feedback site, and follow the instructions.

If you visit a site that you think SmartScreen should warn you about in the future, you can report it to Microsoft by tapping or clicking the Tools button, pointing to Safety, and then choosing Report unsafe website.


Help me recognize this naval action - History

The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 1812 to the spring of 1815, although the peace treaty ending the war was signed in Europe in December 1814. The main land fighting of the war occurred along the Canadian border, in the Chesapeake Bay region, and along the Gulf of Mexico extensive action also took place at sea.

From the end of the American Revolution in 1783, the United States had been irritated by the failure of the British to withdraw from American territory along the Great Lakes their backing of the Indians on America's frontiers and their unwillingness to sign commercial agreements favorable to the United States.

American resentment grew during the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) and the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15), in which Britain and France were the main combatants.

In time, France came to dominate much of the continent of Europe, while Britain remained supreme on the seas. The two powers also fought each other commercially: Britain attempted to blockade the continent of Europe, and France tried to prevent the sale of British goods in French possessions. During the 1790s, French and British maritime policies produced several crises with the United States, but after 1803 the difficulties became much more serious. The British Orders in Council of 1807 tried to channel all neutral trade to continental Europe through Great Britain, and France's Berlin and Milan decrees of 1806 and 1807 declared Britain in a state of blockade and condemned neutral shipping that obeyed British regulations (see CONTINENTAL SYSTEM). The United States believed its rights on the seas as a neutral were being violated by both nations, but British maritime policies were resented more because Britain dominated the seas. Also, the British claimed the right to take from American merchant ships any British sailors who were serving on them. Frequently, they also took Americans. This practice of impressment became a major grievance.

The United States at first attempted to change the policies of the European powers by economic means. In 1807, after the British ship Leopard fired on the American frigate CHESAPEAKE, President Thomas Jefferson urged and Congress passed an EMBARGO ACT banning all American ships from foreign trade. The embargo failed to change British and French policies but devastated New England shipping. Later and weaker economic measures were also unsuccessful.

Failing in peaceful efforts and facing an economic depression, some Americansbegan to argue for a declaration of war to redeem the national honor. The Congress that was elected in 1810 and met in November 1811 included a group known as the War Hawks who demanded war against Great Britain. These men were all Democratic-Republicans and mostly from the West and South. Among their leaders were John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, Henry Clay of Kentucky, and Felix Grundy of Tennessee. They argued that American honor could be saved and British policies changed by an invasion of Canada. The FEDERALIST PARTY, representing New England shippers who foresaw the ruination of their trade, opposed war.

Napoleon's announcement in 1810 of the revocation of his decrees was followed by British refusals to repeal their orders, and pressures for war increased. On June 18, 1812, President James MADISON signed a declaration of war that Congress--with substantial opposition--had passed at his request. Unknown to Americans, Britain had finally, two days earlier, announced that it would revoke its orders.

U.S. forces were not ready for war, and American hopes of conquering Canada collapsed in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813. The initial plan called for a three-pronged offensive: from Lake Champlain to Montreal across the Niagara frontier and into Upper Canada from Detroit. The attacks were uncoordinated, however, and all failed. In the West, Gen. William HULL surrendered Detroit to the British in August 1812 on the Niagara front, American troops lost the Battle of Queenston Heights in October and along Lake Champlain the American forces withdrew in late November without seriously engaging the enemy.

American frigates won a series of single-ship engagements with British frigates, and American privateers continually harried British shipping. The captains and crew of the frigates CONSTITUTION and United States became renowned throughout America. Meanwhile, the British gradually tightened a blockade around America's coasts, ruining American trade, threatening American finances, and exposing the entire coastline to British attack.

American attempts to invade Canada in 1813 were again mostly unsuccessful. There was a standoff at Niagara, and an elaborate attempt to attack Montreal by a combined operation involving one force advancing along Lake Champlain and another sailing down the Saint Lawrence River from Lake Ontario failed at the end of the year. The only success was in the West. The Americans won control of the Detroit frontier region when Oliver Hazard PERRY's ships destroyed the British fleet on Lake Erie (Sept. 10, 1813). This victory forced the British to retreat eastward from the Detroit region, and on Oct. 5, 1813, they were overtaken and defeated at the battle of the Thames (Moraviantown) by an American army under the command of Gen. William Henry HARRISON. In this battle the great Shawnee chief TECUMSEH, who had harassed the northwestern frontier since 1811, was killed while fighting on the British side.

In 1814 the United States faced complete defeat, because the British, having defeated Napoleon, began to transfer large numbers of ships and experienced troops to America. The British planned to attack the United States in three main areas: in New York along Lake Champlain and the Hudson River in order to sever New England from the union at New Orleans to block the Mississippi and in Chesapeake Bay as a diversionary maneuver. The British then hoped to obtain major territorial concessions in a peace treaty. The situation was particularly serious for the United States because the country was insolvent by the fall of 1814, and in New England opponents of the war were discussing separation from the Union. The HARTFORD CONVENTION that met in Connecticut in December 1814 and January 1815 stopped short of such an extreme step but suggested a number of constitutional amendments to restrict federal power.

The British appeared near success in the late summer of 1814. American resistance to the diversionary attack in Chesapeake Bay was so weak that the British, after winning the Battle of Bladensburg (August 24), marched into Washington, D.C., and burned most of the public buildings. President Madison had to flee into the countryside. The British then turned to attack Baltimore but met stiffer resistance and were forced to retire after the American defense of FORT MCHENRY, which inspired Francis Scott KEY to write the words of the "Star-Spangled Banner."

In the north, about 10,000 British veterans advanced into the United States from Montreal. Only a weak American force stood between them and New York City, but on Sept. 11, 1814, American Capt. Thomas MACDONOUGH won the naval battle of Lake Champlain (Plattsburg Bay), destroying the British fleet. Fearing the possibility of a severed line of communications, the British army retreated into Canada.

Peace Treaty and the Battle of New Orleans

In late 1814 New Orleans was home to a population of French, Spanish, African, Anglo and Creole peoples dedicated to pursuing economic opportunism and the joys of life. It also occupied a strategic place on the map. Located just 100 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River, the Crescent City offered a tempting prize to a British military still buoyant over the burning of Washington, D.C. To capture the city, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane fitted out a naval flotilla of more than 50 ships to transport 10,000 veteran troops from Jamaica. They were led by Sir Edward Pakenham, the 37-year-old brother-in-law of the Duke of Wellington and a much-decorated general officer.

For protection, the citizens of southern Louisiana looked to Major General Andrew Jackson, known to his men as "Old Hickory." Jackson arrived in new Orleans in the late fall of 1814 and quickly prepared defenses along the city's many avenues of approach.

Meanwhile, the British armada scattered a makeshift American fleet in Lake Borgne, a shallow arm of the Gulf of Mexico east of New Orleans, and evaluated their options. Two British officers, disguised as Spanish fishermen, discovered an unguarded waterway, Bayou Bienvenue, that provided access to the east bank of the Mississippi River barely nine miles downstream from New Orleans. On December 23 the British vanguard poled its way through a maze of sluggish streams and traversed marshy land to emerge unchallenged an easy day's march from their goal.

Two American officers, whose plantations had been commandeered by the British, informed Jackson that the enemy was at the gates. "Gentlemen, the British are below, we must fight them tonight," the general declared. He quickly launched a nighttime surprise attack that, although tactically a draw, gained valuable time for the outnumbered Americans. Startled by their opponents' boldness, the British decided to defer their advance toward New Orleans until all their troops could be brought in from the fleet.

Old Hickory used this time well. He retreated three miles to the Chalmette Plantation on the banks of the Rodriguez Canal, a wide, dry ditch that marked the narrowest strip of solid land between the British camps and New Orleans. Here Jackson built a fortified mud rampart, 3/5 mile long and anchored on its right by the Mississippi River and on the left by an impassable cypress swamp.

While the Americans dug in, General Pakenham readied his attack plans. On December 28 the British launched a strong advance that Jackson repulsed with the help of the Louisiana, an American ship that blasted the British left flank with broadsides from the river. Four days later Pakenham tried to bombard the Americans into submission with an artillery barrage, but Jackson's gunners stood their ground.

The arrival of fresh troops during the first week of January 1815 gave the British new hope. Pakenham decided to cross the Mississippi downstream with a strong force and overwhelm Jackson's thin line of defenders on the river bank opposite the Rodriguez Canal. Once these redcoats were in position to pour flank fire across the river, heavy columns would assault each flank of the American line, then pursue the insolent defenders six miles into the heart of New Orleans. Units carrying fascines -- bundled sticks used to construct fortifications -- and ladders to bridge the ditch and scale the ramparts would precede the attack, which would begin at dawn January 8 to take advantage of the early morning fog.

It was a solid plan in conception, but flawed in execution. The force on the west bank was delayed crossing the river and did not reach its goal until well after dawn. Deprived of their misty cover, the main British columns had no choice but to advance across the open fields toward the Americans, who waited expectantly behind their mud and cotton-bale barricades. To make matters worse, the British forgot their ladders and fascines, so they had no easy means to close with the protected Americans.

Never has a more polyglot army fought under the Stars and Stripes than did Jackson's force at the Battle of New Orleans. In addition to his regular U.S. Army units, Jackson counted on dandy New Orleans militia, a sizable contingent of black former Haitian slaves fighting as free men of color, Kentucky and Tennessee frontiersmen armed with deadly long rifles and a colorful band of Jean Lafitte's outlaws, whose men Jackson had once disdained as "hellish banditti." This hodgepodge of 4,000 soldiers, crammed behind narrow fortifications, faced more than twice their number.

Pakenham's assault was doomed from the beginning. His men made perfect targets as they marched precisely across a quarter mile of open ground. Hardened veterans of the Peninsular Campaign in Spain fell by the score, including nearly 80 percent of a splendid Scottish Highlander unit that tried to march obliquely across the American front. Both of Pakenham's senior generals were shot early in the battle, and the commander himself suffered two wounds before a shell severed an artery in his leg, killing him in minutes. His successor wisely disobeyed Pakenham's dying instructions to continue the attack and pulled the British survivors off the field. More than 2,000 British had been killed or wounded and several hundred more were captured. The American loss was eight killed and 13 wounded.

Jackson's victory had saved New Orleans, but it came after the war was over. The Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 but resolved none of the issues that started it, had been signed in Europe weeks before the action on the Chalmette Plantation.


Divisions

Information about air groups can be found here.

DivisionRole
1st DivDeck Division, Forward 5" Guns
2nd DivDeck Division, 40mm Guns
3rd DivDeck Division, Aft 5" Guns
4th DivMarine Detachment, Port 20mm Guns
5th DivDeck Division, Ordnance handling, Starboard 20mm Guns
A DivEvaporators, boats, auxilaries, ice machines
B DivBoilers
C & R DivsConstruction and repair
E DivElectrical
H DivMedical, dental
K DivCommunications (radio, signal, sound, electrical)
M DivMain Engines
N DivNavigation (Quartermasters)
R DivConstruction and repair shops, band, ship's service
S DivSupply, disbursing, commissary
V-1 DivAircraft launching, landing and handling operations
V-2 DivFueling, lubrication, and hangar deck plane handling
V-3 DivAir Plot, Fly Control and Aerology
V-4 DivCombat Information Center (CIC), and radar/radio maintenance
V-5 DivServicing and arming aircraft
V-12 DivFuzing and handling bombs and rockets


How to restore your chat history

You can transfer your WhatsApp data to a new phone by restoring from Google Drive or a local backup.

Restore from a Google Drive backup

In order to successfully restore a Google Drive backup, you need to use the same phone number and Google account used to create the backup.

  1. Uninstall and reinstall WhatsApp.
  2. Open WhatsApp and verify your number.
  3. When prompted, tap RESTORE to restore your chats and media from Google Drive.
  4. After the restoration process is complete, tap NEXT. Your chats will be displayed once initialization is complete.
  5. WhatsApp will begin restoring your media files after your chats are restored.

If you install WhatsApp without any prior backups from Google Drive, WhatsApp will automatically restore from your local backup file.

Restore from a local backup

If you want to use a local backup, you'll need to transfer the files to the new phone using a computer, file explorer or SD Card.

  • Your phone will store up to the last seven days worth of local backup files.
  • Local backups will be automatically created every day at 2:00 AM and saved as a file in your phone.
  • If your data isn't stored in the /sdcard/WhatsApp/ folder, you might see "internal storage" or "main storage" folders.

Restore a less recent local backup

If you want to restore a local backup that isn't the most recent one, you'll need to do the following: