Siege of Dyrrhachium, March-May 48 BC

Siege of Dyrrhachium, March-May 48 BC

Siege of Dyrrhachium, March-May 48 BC

The siege of Dyrrhachium (March-May 48 BC) was the first direct confrontation between Caesar and Pompey during the Great Roman Civil War, and ended as a victory for Pompey after he broke through Caesar's siege lines .

Preliminaries

In the first few weeks of the Civil War Caesar had advanced down the Italian peninsula with such speed that Pompey and the Senate had been forced to abandon Italy and retreat to Greece, where they were able to gather their strength and build up a powerful army. By the start of 48 BC Pompey had nine full strength legions under his direct command, and another two veteran legions coming from Syria. His biggest problem was that his men lacked the combat experience of Caesar's veterans, many of whom had fought with him in Gaul.

Caesar had twelve under-strength legions in Italy, but he could be confident that they would win any pitched battle against Pompey's forces. Caesar's main problem was that Pompey's fleets, commanded by L. Bibulus, controlled the Adriatic, making it dangerous to attempt to sail from Brundisium to Greece, but the land route through Illyria would have taken too long.

Caesar was also suffering from a shortage of shipping. According to his own account of the campaign his men insisted on leaving their slaves and baggage behind, and on 4 January 48 BC he set sail at the head of seven legions. On the following day, having slipped past Pompey's fleets, he landed somewhere to the south of the Acroceraunian mountains,

Bibulus arrived on the scene just too late to intercept Caesar, but he was able to catch the fleet as it returned to Italy to pick up the next wave of troops. Thirty ships were taken and set of fire with their crews still on board. He committed a similar atrocity a little later when a single ship fell into his hands.

After landing Caesar sent one of Pompey's captured supporters to him to ask for a peace conference, and then moved north, capturing Oricum, then Apollonia, two important ports on the coast of Epirus (now southern Albania). This just left Dyrrhachium (originally Epidamnus, now Durres in Albania) in Pompey's hands. Alerted by the message from Caesar, Pompey pushed his troops on a forced march and just managed to block Caesar's route north, retaining control of Dyrrhachium.

At this point the advantage was with Pompey. He had easy access to supplies, with control of the sea and a much larger army than Caesar, but he was unwilling to risk a battle, even though there was always a chance that Caesar would receive reinforcements.

The standoff lasted until late February, when Mark Antony finally managed to get to sea with four legions, some slingers and 800 cavalry. His fleet of sailing ships was blown past Caesar at Apollonia and Pompey at Dyrrhachium, and eventually reached land at Nymphaeum (now Shengjin in Albania, previously known as S. Giovanni di Medua).

Caesar now had eleven legions, but they were split in two, with Pompey between them. Pompey attempted to ambush Antony, but his movements were reported by local supporters of Caesar. Antony halted his march for one day to all Caesar to arrive, and rather than risk fighting two armies at the same time Pompey retreated to Asparagium, in the territory of Dyrrhachium. Caesar followed and offered battle, but when Pompey refused to fight yet again Caesar decided to try and make a dash for Dyrrhachium, using an obscure and round-about route in the hope that Pompey wouldn't realise where he had gone.

The plan almost worked. Caesar's men arrived outside Dyrrhachium while Pompey was still some distance away, but the lead was not enough. Pompey established himself on some higher ground at Petra, a nearby anchorage to the south of Dyrrhachium. This prevented Caesar from concentrating on a formal siege of Dyrrhachium, and instead forced him to deal with Pompey's main army.

The Siege

Both commanders quickly began to build field fortifications - Caesar in an attempt to blockade Pompey and Pompey in order to secure as large an area as possible. Eventually the lines ran for fifteen miles, and enclosed a large area along the coast. Caesar and Pompey both placed their main camps at the northern end of the siege works, with Pompey's at or close to Petra. The two lines of fortifications were created in something that would appear to have been similar to the 'race to the sea' of 1914, with Caesar attempting to reach the sea as near as possible to Petra, and Pompey expanding his lines to stop him.

Pompey still had command of the sea, and so Caesar was forced to build a double line of fortifications, to guard against the possibility of an amphibious assault. He was also forced to detach a number of legions from the main army to try and find supplies, and so the southern end of the line was incomplete, with no cross walls linking the inner and outer lines.

Once the two lines of fortifications had been completed the supply situation gradually began to turn against Pompey. Although food for the men could easily reach his beachhead, fodder for the horses was harder to find, and they soon began to sicken. After a siege that probably lasted for around six weeks, Pompey decided to try and break through Caesar's lines.

The first attempt is made obscure by an unfortunate gap in Caesar's Commentary on the Civil War. Caesar was tricked into leaving his main camp by a report that Dyrrhachium was about to be betrayed to him. P. Sulla was left in charge of the lines, which were attacked in three places. The most serious attack saw a single cohort hold off an attack by several legions before reinforcements arrived, but all three attacks eventually failed.

The second attack (battle of Dyrrhachium) took advantage of inside knowledge that came to Pompey from two Gallic deserters, who informed him that the southern part of Caesar's line was vulnerable. This attack was more successful, and Caesar only narrowly avoided a serious defeat. In the aftermath of this defeat Caesar decided to change his plan, and move east, away from the coast and Pompey's fleet. This campaign ended with the two armies facing each other at Pharsalus, the site of the decisive battle of the war.


11th century [ επεξεργασία | επεξεργασία κώδικα ]

Year Battle Description
1000 Battle of Swold Semi-legendary battle. Norway is defeated by an alliance of the other Scandinavians.
1014 Battle of Clontarf 23 April – Irish King Brian Boru ends Norse rule of Ireland, but is killed in battle.
1014 Μάχη Κλειδίου (Battle of Kleidion) Byzantine Emperor Basil II conquers the Bulgarians, ending Bulgarian independence for 171 years.
1016 Battle of Nesjar Future Norwegian king Saint Olav Haraldsson laid foundation for his reign in this victory.
1016 Battle of Ashingdon 18 October – Danes led by Canute the Great defeat an English army led by King Edmund II ('Ironside').
1018 Battle of Carham Máel Coluim II, King of Scots, defeats the Northumbrians.
1018 Battle of Vlaardingen Count Dirk III of West Frisia defeats an army sent by Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor at Vlaardingen.
1018 Battle of Heunghwajin Korean defeat the Khitan.
1018 Battle of Kwiju The major battle during the Third Goryeo-Khitan War, decisive victory for the Goryeo.
1021 Battle of Shirimni 11 September – Byzantine forces under Basil II defeats Georgian forces under George I.
1022 Battle of Svindax Byzantine Emperor Basil II defeats Giorgi I of Georgia, forcing him to accept a treaty.
1030 Battle of Stiklestad Norwegian King Saint Olaf Haraldsson is killed in battle, but Christianization of Norway is ensured.
1030 Battle of Azaz (1030) Mirdasids defeat a large Byzantine army led by Emperor Romanos III in person
1040 Battle of Dandanaqan Seljuk Turks defeat the Ghaznavid Empire and begin occupying Khorasan.
1042 Battle of Sasireti Byzantine Empire intervenes in a civil war in Georgia in favor of the rebels. Royal army of Georgia crushed.
1047 Battle of Val-ès-Dunes William, Duke of Normandy and King Henry I of France against the forces of several rebel Norman barons.
1053 Battle of Civitate Robert Guiscard's Normans destroy the army of Pope Leo IX.
1054 Battle of Dunsinane Malcolm defeats MacBeth.
1057 Battle of Lumphanan MacBeth is killed in battle against Malcolm's forces.
1063 Battle of Graus Castile and Zaragoza defeat Aragon, killing Ramiro I.
1066 Battle of Fulford 20 September - Norwegian Vikings led by Harald III of Norway defeat the northern earls Edwin and Morcar
1066 Battle of Stamford Bridge 25 September – Harold Godwinson of England defeats his brother Tostig Godwinson and Harald III of Norway, both are killed.
1066 Μάχη Αστίγης (Battle of Hastings) 14 October - Normans under William the Conqueror defeat the Anglo-Saxon army under Harold Godwinson, who is killed.
1071 Battle of Manzikert Byzantine emperor Romanos IV Diogenes is defeated and captured by the Seljuk Turks.
1071 Byzantines lose Bari, their last possession in Italy, to the Norman Robert Guiscard.
1078 Battle of Kalavryai Imperial forces under Alexios Komnenos defeat the rebels under Nikephoros Bryennios the Elder.
1079 Battle of Cabra El Cid defeats the combined forces of the Emir of Granada and his Castilian allies.
1081 Battle of Dyrrhachium Robert Guiscard of Apulia and Calabria defeats the Byzantines under Emperor Alexius I Comnenus.
1086 Battle of az-Zallaqah 23 October – Almoravides defeat Castile and Aragon forces decisively.
1091 Battle of Levounion 29 April – Byzantines under Alexios I Komnenos defeat the Pechenegs.
1093 Battle of Alnwick Malcolm III of Scotland is killed by English Knights under Robert de Mowbray.
1093 Battle of the Stugna River The Kypchaks defeat Chernihiv and Kiev.
1097 Siege of Nicaea 14 May – 19 June, Byzantines and Crusaders defeat forces of the Sultanate of Rum at Nicaea.
1097 Battle of Dorylaeum 1 July - Crusaders defeat the Seljuk forces in Anatolia.
1097 Battle of Gvozd Mountain Hungarian forces under King Coloman defeat the Croatians, killing their last king, Petar Svačić.
1098 Siege of Antioch 3 June – Crusaders capture Antioch after more than eight months of siege.
1099 Siege of Jerusalem 15 July – Crusaders capture Jerusalem from the Fatimids after a month of siege and bloody street-fighting.
1099 Battle of Ascalon 12 August - Crusaders defeat the Fatimids at Ascalon, but the city is not taken.

Tobacco and the Social Life of Conquest 1580-1625

As early as 1599, English authors praised tobacco for evoking ‘a most gentleman-like smell’, one that seemed far removed from the Native American societies and lands from whence it came. This article uses the material culture of smoking – from clay pipe fragments to iron stamps, rolled leaves to silver and tortoiseshell boxes – to connect an American-sourced intoxicant to changing tastes and expressions of masculinity in early seventeenth-century London.

Adopting a comparative, anthropological approach to smoking sheds light on how Native American goods, knowledge, and practices were integrated into English social habits, and illuminates some of the ways in which literary wits engaged with colonialism. In addition to raising attention to the impact of colonial projects on elite civility and material assemblages, this article also makes a case for why the erasure or absence of Indigeneity is important to our understanding of shifting ideas of refinement in early modern England. In the poetry of London wits, which often connected tobacco to the colonial imagination, the intoxicating pleasures of the plant fuelled fantasies of English conquest over Indigenous spaces.


Syrian civil war ceasefires

Following talks in Munich, the world powers in the International Syria Support Group negotiated a ceasefire between the main parties to the war. [2] On 22 February 2016 the United States and Russia announced the Terms for a Cessation of Hostilities in Syria, pledging "that the cessation of hostilities will be monitored in an impartial and transparent manner and with broad media coverage." [3] On 26 February 2016, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2268 that demanded all parties to comply with the terms [4] of a U.S.-Russian deal on a "cessation of hostilities". [5] The cease-fire started on 27 February 2016 at 00:00 (Damascus time). [6] The ceasefire does not include attacks on UN-designated terrorist organizations such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and the al-Nusra Front. [7] [8] At the close of February 2016, despite individual clashes, the truce was reported to hold. [9]

In early February 2016, the formal start of the UN-mediated Geneva Syria peace talks [10] and the opposition′s protestations [11] notwithstanding, the Syrian government carried on with its offensive operations in the Aleppo Governorate [12] amidst speculations that Turkey, as well as Saudi Arabia [13] and the United Arab Emirates, [14] were preparing a military incursion into Syria. [15] [16] The Saudi announcement was welcomed by the United States. [17] Responding to the calls for Russia to stop bombing opposition forces in Syria now that the peace talks had started, Sergey Lavrov speaking in Muscat, Oman, said Russia would not stop its air strikes until Russia defeated "such terrorist organisations as Jabhat al-Nusra and ISIL″ he also stressed the imperative that Syria's border with Turkey be secured to prevent smuggling and the movement of militants. [18] [19] Syria′s deputy prime minister Walid Muallem said that any foreign country′s ground intervention in the Syrian territory without the government's approval would be deemed an act of aggression to be confronted: "Any aggressor will be sent back to their country in wooden boxes, whether they be Saudis or Turks." [20] [21]

On 11 February, it was confirmed that the Syrian Democratic Forces based in the town of Afrin, north-west of Aleppo, had taken a series of towns, including Deir Jamal and al-Qamiya, as well as a former Menagh Military Airbase near the border with Turkey, previously taken by rebels. [22] In retaliation, on 13 February Turkey began a sustained campaign of shelling on SDF positions in the area of Azaz from its territory. [23] [24] [25]

On 14 March 2016, Russian president Vladimir Putin announced that Russia would be pulling out the "main part" of its military in Syria. Putin also said that Russia's Khmeimim airbase will be kept to control the ceasefire agreements and that its port at Tartus would continue to operate as normal. [26]

According to Western sources, Iran has kept only 700 IRGC advisors in Syria after the ceasefire, but this has not been confirmed. In mid-March, the Ground Forces of Islamic Republic of Iran Army indicated it would send Army commandos and snipers as military advisers to Syria and Iraq, the first formal acknowledgement by Iran of deployment of regular Iranian Army (as opposed to IRGC) forces outside Iran since the Iran–Iraq War of the 1980s. [27] [28]

Syrian government with support from Russian and Iranian forces successfully captured Palmyra from the ISIL by the end of March 2016. [29]

FSA and allied Islamist groups captured al-Ra'i from ISIS on April 8. The capture of the town secured an important supply line for the rebels from Turkey near whose border the town is located. [30] ISIL recaptured the town along with six villages on April 11. [31]

By July 2016, this ceasefire had mostly unraveled and violence again escalated. [32]

On 10 September 2016, Russia and U.S. reached a deal on establishing a cease fire between the Syrian Assad government and a US-supported coalition of so-called 'mainstream Syrian opposition rebel groups'. [33]

This ceasefire was backed by the United States and Russia, with the understanding that – if it held for one week – Russia and the United States could begin to plan a joint mission against ISIS and al-Nusra. [2] [34] A notable loophole in the ceasefire meant that it did not apply to attacks against "terrorist targets" – the Russian government has used claims that it was targeting terrorist elements to justify airstrikes against rebel-held areas. [2] The ceasefire went into effect on 12 September, but was poorly adhered to, with the Syrian government continuing bombing and UN humanitarian aid delayed by security concerns and the danger to convoys. [34] [35]

The ceasefire suffered a further set-back 17 September 2016, when a U.S.-British airstrike that they claimed was aimed at ISIL killed 60 Syrian government soldiers, and was on 19 September declared over by the Syrian government, after an airstrike by Syrian or Russian forces hit a Syrian Arab Red Crescent warehouse, killing 14 people and destroying 18 truckloads of food. [36] [34] [37] On 3 October 2016, the U.S. announced suspension of talks with Russia on implementing the agreement, marking the definitive end of the ceasefire deal. [38] [39]

On 28 December 2016, talks between Turkey and Russia in Astana, Kazakhstan have resulted in the two states brokering a nationwide Syrian ceasefire that is due to begin at midnight on 30 December. [40] The National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces stated that it would abide with the truce. [41] ISIL, the al-Nusra Front, and the YPG were excluded from the ceasefire, and the following rebel groups signed up for the truce:

However, the Ahrar al-Sham spokesman denied having signed the deal. [42]

Less than 2 hours after the ceasefire was due to be implemented, clashes erupted between the Army of Victory and government forces in the northern Hama Governorate. Rebel-held areas throughout the Idlib Governorate were also reportedly bombed. [41]

On 31 December, several rebel groups declared the truce to be "null and void" if clashes continued. [43]

On 2 January 2017, rebel groups said that they freeze talks about participation in peace conference due to ceasefire violations, referring to Wadi Barada offensive. [44]

According to the United Nations on 6 January 2017, the ceasefire is "largely holding". [45]

On 14 February 2017, the cease-fire between Assad forces and rebels collapsed throughout the country, leading to fresh clashes in various locations and a fresh rebel offensive in Daraa.

The third meeting of the Astana Process talks concluded in Astana on 25 March 2017. [46] All parties that participated remained committed to the ceasefire agreement in place from the second round of Astana talks. [46]

On 4 May 2017, Russia, Iran, and Turkey signed an agreement in Astana to create four "de-escalation zones" in Syria. The four zones include the Idlib Governorate, the northern rebel-controlled parts of the Homs Governorate, the rebel-controlled eastern Ghouta, and the Jordan–Syria border. The agreement was rejected by some rebel groups, [47] and the Democratic Union Party also denounced the deal, saying that the ceasefire zones are "dividing Syria up on a sectarian basis". The ceasefire came into effect on 6 May. [48]

On 9 July 2017, an open-ended cease-fire in southern Syria brokered by the United States, Russia, and Jordan went into effect. [49] The ceasefire covered the governorates of Daraa, Suwayda and Quneitra. [50] The deal was hailed as the first attempt by the U.S. Trump administration at peacemaking in the Syrian civil war. [51]

According to 21 July 2017 report by Fox News, the ceasefire was mainly holding, albeit with flaws. [52]


17th century

Early 17th century

  • 1601 December 27 Bantam – Dutch defeat Portuguese in Bantam Bay
  • 1602 October 3 Sluis – Dutch under Jacob van Duivenvoorde defeat Spanish under Frederik Spinola
  • 1603 May 26 Sluis – Dutch under Joos de Moor beat back Spanish under Frederik Spinola
  •   ?? 1603 October – Tuscan galleys defeat Tunisians
  • 1604 October – Tuscans defeat Tunisians (details)
  • 1605 – Dutch fleet under Willem Haultain attacks and partly destroys a Spanish fleet of transport ships near Dover
  • 1605 November Attack on Salinas de Araya – Spanish under Luis Fajardo defeat a fleet of Dutch smugglers and privateers
  • 1606 June or October Battle of Cape St. Vincent – Spanish under Luis Fajardo defeat Dutch under Willem Haultain
  • 1606 August 17 Cape Rachado – Indecisive action between a Dutch fleet under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge and a Portuguese fleet near Malacca
    • September 21 Second battle of Cape Rachado – Dutch under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge destroy Portuguese ships
    • October 20 – Tuscans under Beauregard defeat Turkish trade fleet (details)
    • June 29 – Spanish-French raid on La Goulette, Tunisia (details)
    • – Venetians defeat Turks near Paxos (details)
    • (late)? – Turks under Khalil defeat French under Fressinet near Cyprus (details)
    • (late)? – Turks vs French under Beaulieu
    • October 10 – Tuscans vs Turks (details)
    • November 29󈞊 Swally – British East India Company fleet defeats Portuguese fleet near Surat, India
    • July 17 and 18 – Spanish vs Dutch (same as next?)
    • – Dutch under Spilbergen defeat Spanish under de Pulgar near Valdivia, Peru (details)
    • about March? – Spanish under Ribera defeat Tunisians at La Goulette (details)
    • April 29 – Tuscans under Inghirami defeat Turks near Euboea (details)
    • July 14󈝼 – Spanish under Ribera defeat Turks in the first regular action between galleys and sailing ships in the Mediterranean (details)
    • July – Spanish versus Dutch (details)
    • about October (possible engagement) – Neapolitans/Sicilian galleys defeat larger Turkish galley fleet
    • June 12 – Minor skirmish between Neapolitans/Sicilians and Venetians
    • Playa Honda – Dutch defeat Spanish
    • November 19 and 20 – Inconclusive battle between Sicilians and Venetians (details)
    • July 2 and 3 – Dutch under Moy Lambert and Spanish under Vidazabal defeat Algerines
    • December 23󈞈 – English vs Dutch near Jakarta (details)
    • March 1 – English vs Dutch near Jakarta (details)
    • May 31 – Dutch defeat French at the mouth of the Vilaine River
    • – English defeat Portuguese
    • June 26 – Tuscans defeat Bizertans (details)
    • December 28 – English (East India Company) defeat Portuguese at Cape Jask
    • October – French vs Rochellais (Huguenot) rebels near La Rochelle (details)
    • Dutch ships under Joachim Swartenhondt escorting a convoy repel a Spanish squadron near Gibraltar
    • February 1 and 3 – Portuguese defeat English and Dutch (details)
    • June 26 – Bizertans defeat Maltese near Syracuse, Sicily (details)
    • September 15 – French under Soubise defeat hired Dutch ships near Rochelle
    • June 21 – English defeat Venetians/French at Scanderoon (details)
    • September 9 Dutch squadron under Piet Hein attacks and captures Spanish treasure fleet
    • September 29 – French defeat English near La Rochelle
    • September 16 – Swedes defeat Holy Roman Empire near Wismar (details)
    • September 12󈝹 The Slaak – Dutch Zeeland fleet under Marinus Hollare defeats Spanish invasion fleet
    • July 19 – Maltese galleys under Valdina defeat Tripolitans
    • – Maltese under Villages defeat Turks
    • – Maltese privateers defeat Turkish galleys
    • August 25 – Dunkirk frigates under Jacob Collaart defeats Dutch escort capturing 24 fishing trawlers
    • about September 25 – Spanish defeat Dutch West India Company convoy
    • Spanish convoy commanded by Lope de Hoces captures 32 enemy ships in the English Channel on its return voyage to Spain.
    • June – Maltese galleys defeat Tripolitan sailing ships near Calabria
    • September- French defeat Spanish in galley fight near Genoa
    • August 7 – Venetians under Capello defeat Algerians at Corfu
    • August 22 – French under de Sourdis destroy Spanish galleons under Lope de Hoces at Guetaría (details)
    • September 17󈝿 Calais – Running fight between Dutch under Maarten Tromp and Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo who seeks shelter at The Downs
    • September 30 Mormugão – Dutch defeat Portuguese near Goa
    • October 31 Battle of the Downs – Dutch under Tromp defeat Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo in the English Channel
    • end December – Spanish under Miguel de Horna defeat stronger French force
    • June 15 – Dunkerquers defeat Dutch in the Shetland Isles (details)
    • July? – French under Maillé Brézé defeat Spanish under Don Gomez de Sandoval
    • – Several French vs Spanish
    • May 17 and 18 – Spanish defeat French near Pensacola
    • September 1 and 2   ? – Spanish under Pietersen defeat French and Portuguese
    • November 4 – Dutch under Gijssels defeated by Spanish at Cape St Vincent (details)
    • October – Portuguese defeat Spanish?

    Danish-Swedish War (1643󈞙)

    • 1644 May 16 – Danes defeat Dutch ships which have been hired to support Sweden (details)
      • May 25 – Danes get slightly the better of 33 hired Dutch ships
      • July 1 Colberger Heide (Colberg Heath) – Danish and Swedish fleets fight an inconclusive battle off NE Germany
      • July 7 – Danes defeat Swedes in small battle (details)
      • August 10 – Dutch fleet under Thijsen brushes past Danish fleet under King Christian IV in Kjoge Bay, Denmark (details)
      • October 13 – Femern, Germany – Combined Swedish/Dutch fleet badly defeats Danish fleet

      Cretan War (1645󈞱)

      • 1644 September 28 – Maltese galleys defeat Turkish sailing ships near Rhodes their subsequent stay in Venetian-held Crete provoked the outbreak of war (details)
      • 1645 September 28 or 29 – Combined Christian fleet tries and fails to retake Canea (Chania) in Crete, from the Ottomans
        • October 1 – Christians vs Turks near Canea, Crete
        • August 14 – Inconclusive fight between Christians and the Ottoman fleet anchored at Chania Bay, Crete
        • August 25 – Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
        • September 9 – Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
        • May 12 Focchies – Venetians defeat large Turkish fleet near western Turkey
        • July 15 – Venetians vs Turks near Candia, Crete (details)
        • July 18 – Venetians defeat Turks near Candia (details)
        • May 16 – Turks under Murad defeat Venetians under Giuseppe Delfino in Dardanelles (details)
        • June 21 – Turks retreat after skirmish with Venetians west of Milos
        • May 18 – Venetians under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks and Algerines at Suazich (details)
        • July 17󈝿 – Venetians, Maltese and Papal forces under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks in Dardanelles (details)
        • May 18 – Venetians defeat Turks in minor skirmish
        • August 27 – Venetians and Maltese defeat Turks near Milos, Greece (details)
        • August – French under the Duc de Beaufort defeat Algerines at Cherchell, Algeria
        • November 27 – French under d'Escrainville defeat Turks
        • May 2 – French defeat Turks (details)
        • about September – Barbary "Turks" defeat Venetians south of Crete (details)

        Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652󈞶)

        • 1652 May 29 Dover – Clash between English under Robert Blake and Dutch under Maarten Tromp's off Dover initiates the First Anglo-Dutch War
          • August 26 Plymouth – Michiel de Ruyter's 36 men-of-war hold off Ayscue's 45 men-of-war, driving them away
          • September 7 Elba (Monte Cristo) – Dutch under Jan van Galen beat back English under Richard Badiley
          • October 8 Kentish Knock (Zeeland Approaches) – English under Blake beat back Dutch under de With
          • December 10 Dungeness – Dutch under Tromp defeat English under Blake
          • March 13 Leghorn – Dutch under Johan van Galen defeat English under Badiley and Appleton
          • June 12󈝹 Gabbard (North Foreland) – English defeat Dutch
          • August 8󈝶 Scheveningen (Ter Heide, Texel) – Dutch under Maarten Tromp repulse English blockading fleet under George Monck with both sides retreating. Tromp is killed
          • August 2 Vågen – English squadron repelled attempting to capture richly laden Dutch merchant fleet in the bay of Bergen, Norway
          • June 15 James River (Virginia)-Dutch under Abraham Crijnssen attacks Virginia tobacco fleet (Details)
          • June 11󈝺 Four Days – Dutch under de Ruyter defeats English fleet commanded by Albermarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine
          • August 4𔃃 St James's Day (North Foreland/Orfordness) – English under Albemarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine defeat a Dutch fleet under de Ruyter
          • June 9󈝺 Raid on the Medway – Dutch raid Medway river near London. The English flagship, Royal Charles, is captured
          • June 7 – Solebay (Southwold) Dutch fleet under de Ruyter vs combined English/French under York
          • August 21 Texel (Kijkduin)

          Later 17th century

          • 1645 September 9 Tamandare – Dutch squadron under Jan Lichthart destroys a Portuguese squadron under Jerônimo Serrão de Paiva at TamandaréBrazil
          • 1645 – Algerian Barbary pirates attempted an attack on Edinburgh, Scotland
          • 1646 La Naval de Manila – Two Spanish galleons with Spanish & Filipino crew repel a Dutch invasion fleet in 5 separate actions over several months around the Philippines
          • 1646? – French under du Mé defeat Spanish
          • 1646 14󈝼 June, Battle of Orbetello, Spanish defeat French invasion fleet commanded by Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé
          • 1647 June 10 Puerto de Cavite – Spanish defeat Dutch attack near Manila
            • 1647 Neapolitan Republic (1647)- Spanish defeat French at Ischia, Pozzuoli, and Salerno and force French out of southern Italy.
            • October 20 – Parliamentarians capture French frigate
            • May 2 – Dutch defeat Portuguese near Colombo (details)
            • – French under Vendôme defeat Spanish near Barcelona
            • September 12 and 13 – Danes and Swedes fight inconclusively near Moen, Denmark (details)
            • April 30 – Small running battle between Dutch and Danes against Swedes (details)
            • – Dutch/Danes under de Ruyter defeat Swedes and liberate Nyborg
            • July (possible engagement) – English defeat Tripolitans
            • January – English defeat Tripolitans
            • April 22 Agosta (Etna) – French fleet under Duquesne and Dutch/Spanish fleet under de Ruyter fight to a draw. De Ruyter is mortally wounded
            • June 2 Palermo – French under Comte de Vivonne defeat Dutch/Spanish under De la Cerda and Den Haen
            • May 25 and 26/June 3 and 4 – Dutch/Danish fleet under Niels Iuel defeat Swedes under Baron Creutz between Bornholm and Rugen in the Baltic Sea
            • June 1/11 Öland – Dutch/Danish fleet defeats Swedish fleet south of Öland in the Baltic Sea
            • May 31 and June 1/11 – Danes defeat Swedes between Femern and Warnemunde, Baltic Sea (details)
            • July 1/11 and 2 Køge Bay – Danes and Dutch defeat Swedish fleet
            • December Tobago – French under Jean II d'Estrées defeat Dutch under Jacob Binckes
            • June 26, June 28, July 2 and July 20 – Series of skirmishes culminating in a Danish victory over Sweden
            • September 30 – Spanish defeat Brandenburgers near Cape St Vincent (details)
            • October 4 – Venetians vs Turks near Mitylene, Greece
            • French vs English near Casquets
            • July 10 Beachy Head (Beveziers) – French defeat Anglo-Dutch fleet
            • – French vs English and Dutch near Madras
            • September 8 – Venetians fight the combined fleet of Turkey, Algiers, Tripoli and Tunis near Mitylene, Greece (details)
            • – French defeat Spanish near Cape Finisterre
            • – French defeat Tripolitans near Malta
            • April 16 – French defeat English (details)
            • September 15 and 18 – Venetians under Contarini vs Turks under Mezzo Morto
            • June 17 Dogger Bank – French defeat Dutch
            • – French and English fight in Newfoundland
            • – Fight near San Domingo
            • July 14 Bay of Fundy – French under Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville defeat English
            • August 22 – Venetians under Contarini vs Turks and their allies under Mezzo Morto near Andros (details)

            Not so bad, actually: Nero in the Journal of Roman Studies

            A fair-haired, bull-necked, poetry-loving ruler, with an eye for interior design, pathetically desperate for his subjects’ affection, sexually incontinent, lazy and slapdash in his handling of public affairs, prone to showing off his knowledge of Greek in public, and later to be remembered as the most disastrous political leader his country had ever produced – why have the Roman Society and the British Museum chosen this year of all years to commemorate the emperor Nero? It is hard to think of any meaningful parallels with the statesmen of our own day. Suggestions on a postcard.

            The character of Nero’s principate has been debated in the Journal of Roman Studies since our very first issue, way back in 1911. Trajan supposedly used to say that Nero had in fact been the best of all emperors for five years of his reign, and the notion of ‘the Five (Good) Years of Nero’ has had a long and lively afterlife in modern scholarship. But Tacitus and Suetonius are quite clear that Nero was a rotter from the outset, and you need to squint rather hard to see any real difference between the first five years of his reign (AD 54–59) and the rest. In his ‘Trajan on the Quinquennium Neronis’, JRS 1 (1911), 173–9, J.G.C. Anderson ingeniously suggested that the relevant five years were in fact the last five years of Nero’s reign (AD 63–68), and that what Trajan was praising was Nero’s exemplary rebuilding of the city of Rome after the fire of AD 64. Strong arguments have since been raised against Anderson’s view, including in the pages of the JRS (F.A. Lepper, ‘Some Reflections on the Quinquennium Neronis’, JRS 47 (1957), 95–103), but Anderson’s paper is still well worth reading today – and it’s admirably short.

            More recently, the legacy of the great fire of AD 64 is the subject of an absorbing article in the JRS by Virginia Closs, ‘Neronianis Temporibus: The so-called Arae Incendii Neroniani and the fire of AD 64 in Rome’s monumental landscape’, JRS 106 (2016), 102–23. Closs tackles an extraordinary and neglected group of monuments, a set of massive stone altars to the god Vulcan dotted around the city of Rome, vowed by Nero in the immediate aftermath of the fire of 64 but only completed by Domitian in (probably) the mid-80s. As Closs brilliantly shows, these altars originally belonged to a set of eminently sensible and practical new urban fire-safety measures planned (and partially implemented) by Nero in the mid-60s AD. But the Flavians, committed as they were to vilifying Nero and all his works, chose instead to make ideological hay out of Nero’s impious failure to complete the altars, a religious fault only belatedly remedied by the impeccably devout Domitian.

            Finally, the posthumous blackening of Nero’s reputation is also the subject of a brilliant and controversial paper by Brent D. Shaw, ‘The myth of the Neronian persecution’, JRS 105 (2015), 73–100. Nero’s alleged scapegoating of the Christian community of Rome in the wake of the fire of 64, vividly described by Tacitus in his Annals (15.44), has long been one of the very few fixed points in the early history of the Christian Church. Shaw argues that this ‘Neronian persecution’ is a retrospective fiction, developed only in the decades around AD 100, and that it is profoundly unlikely that the Christians were even recognised as a distinct group – let alone persecuted – by the Roman state as early as the 60s BC. Shaw’s thesis has been hotly debated over the past six years, and it is probably still too early to say whether it will gain wide acceptance. Still, sparking these kinds of controversies is part of the point of a journal like the JRS, and I very much hope that the Roman Society’s New Research on Nero Webinar (15 May 2021, jointly organised with The Association for Roman Archaeology) and the British Museum’s Nero exhibition (27 May – 24 October 2021) will inspire more young scholars to join the debate.


            السنة المعركة
            1210 ق.م. الحيثيون يهزمون القبارصة بالقرب قبرص
            حوالي 1190 ق.م. معركة الدلتا رمسيس الثالث يهزم "شعوب البحر" في دلتا النيل
            664 ق.م. Corinth battles كورفو
            c.535 BC
            to 540 BC
            Alalia Carthaginians and Etruscans defeat Greeks بالقرب من Alalia (now Aléria), Corsica
            497 ق.م. Ionians defeat Phoenicians بالقرب من قبرص
            494 ق.م. Lade Persians defeat Ionians
            480 BC Artemisium Persians defeat Greeks
            Salamis The Athenian navy defeats Persians
            474 ق.م. Cumae Syracuse and Cumae defeat Etruscans
            460s ق.م. Eurymedon Delian League defeats Persians
            450s ق.م. Salamis (in Cyprus) Delian League defeats Phoenicians and Cilicians
            433 ق.م. Sybota Corcyra and Athens defeat Corinthians
            429 ق.م. Battles of Naupactus Athenians defeat Spartans and Corinthians
            425 ق.م. Pylos Athenians defeat Spartans
            413 ق.م. Syracuse Syracusans defeat Athenians
            411 BC Cynossema Athenians defeat Spartans
            Eretria Spartans defeat Athenians during September
            410 ق.م. Cyzicus Athenians defeat Spartans and Peloponnesians
            406 ق.م. Arginusae Athenians defeat Peloponnesians
            405 ق.م. Aegospotami Spartans destroy the Athenian navy
            394 ق.م. Cnidus Persians defeat Spartans
            376 ق.م. Naxos Athenians defeat Spartans
            357 ق.م. Chios defeats an Athenian fleet during the Social War
            306 ق.م. Salamis (in Cyprus) Demetrius I Poliorcetes defeats the fleet of Menelaeus, brother of Ptolemy I of Egypt
            276 ق.م. Battle of the Strait of Messina Carthaginians defeat the fleet of Pyrrhus of Epirus
            260 BC Lipara Islands Carthaginians defeat Romans
            Battle of Mylae Romans under Duilius defeat Carthaginians بالقرب من Sicily
            258 ق.م. Cos Antigonus II Gonatas defeats Ptolemy II
            Sulci Romans under Gaius Sulpicius Paterculus defeat Carthaginians under Hannibal Gisco
            257 ق.م. Tyndaris Romans under Gaius Atilius Regulus defeat Carthaginians under Hamilcar
            256 ق.م. Cape Ecnomus Romans defeat Carthaginians
            249 ق.م. Drepana Carthaginians defeat Romans
            245/246 BC Ancient Macedonians defeat Egyptians at Andros
            10 March 241 ق.م. Aegates Islands Roman victory over the Carthaginians, ending the First Punic War
            218 ق.م. Lilybaeum Romans under Amellius defeat Carthaginians بالقرب من Lilybaeum, Sicily
            217 ق.م. Ebro River Romans under Cornelius Scipio defeat Carthaginians بالقرب من the mouth of the Ebro River (Italy)
            206 ق.م. Carteia Romans under Gaius Laelius defeat Carthaginians Adherbal
            201 ق.م. Chios Philip V of Macedon defeated by the Egyptians, Rhodians, and Pergamese
            2nd Battle of Lade Philip V of Macedon defeats Rhodians under Cleonaeus
            190 BC Eurymedon Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal
            Myonessus Romans under Regillus and Rhodians under Eudoras defeat Seleucids under Polyxenidas
            147 ق.م. Port of Carthage Carthaginians under Hasdrubal defeat the Roman fleet of Lucius Hostilius Mancinus
            74 ق.م. Chalcedon Pontians under Mithridates VI defeat the Roman fleet of Marcus Aurelius Cotta
            73 ق.م. Tenedos Romans under Lucius Licinius Lucullus defeat a Pontian fleet
            67 ق.م. Korakesion Romans under Pompey defeat pirates from Cilicia
            56 BC Morbihan Romans under Decius Brutus defeat Veneti بالقرب من Armorica
            49 BC Ile du Levant Romans under Decius Brutus defeat [ ]
            Romans under Decius Brutus defeat [ ] في Tauroentum
            42 ق.م. The Republican fleet intercepts and destroys reinforcements of the triumvirs led by Gnaeus Domitius Calvinus
            3 September 36 ق.م. Naulochus Agrippa defeats Sextus Pompeius
            2 September 31 ق.م. Actium Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra
            70 Rome vs Batavi in the Maas
            199 Shaxian Wu forces under Sun Ce defeat Liu Biao and Huang Zu
            208 Red Cliffs Combined forces of Liu Bei and Sun Quan defeat fleet under Cao Cao
            221 Yiling Sun Quan defeats the fleet under Liu Bei and successfully defends Jingzhou
            222 Dongkou Eastern Wu general Lü Fan manages to defeat Cao Xiu
            272 Xiling Lu Kang defeats Jin general Bu Chan and retakes Xiling [ بحاجة لتوضيح ]
            • 456 - Romans under Flavius Ricimer defeat Vandals بالقرب من Corsica
            • 461 Cartagena - Vandals destroy a newly built West Roman fleet
            • 468 Cape Bon - Vandals defeat East and West Romans under Basiliscus
            • 551 Sena Gallica - The Byzantines defeat the Ostrogoths
            • 655 Battle of the Masts - Arabs under Uthman defeat Byzantines under Constans II
            • 663 August Baekgang - Tang Dynasty and Silla defeat Baekje and Japan
            • 677 or 678 First Arab siege of Constantinople - Byzantines defeat Arabs (first use of "Greek fire")
            • 697? - Greeks under John defeat Arabs
            • 698 Carthage - Arabs defeat Greeks under John at Carthage
            • 698 - Imperial Constantinopolitan fleet defeats Cibyrrhaeot rebels
            • 717, September 3 Second Arab siege of Constantinople - Byzantines under Leo III the Isaurian defeat Arabs
            • 718, Spring Second Arab siege of Constantinople - Byzantines under Leo III defeat Arabs
            • 719, Dalriadan civil war resulted in a conflict between two opposing groups of curraghs, mentioned in the Senchus Fer n-Alban
            • 727 - Byzantine central imperial fleet destroys provincial Helladic and Cyclades fleets
            • 747 Ceramea - Byzantines destroy large Arab fleet
            • 806? - Moors defeat Franks under Hadumar بالقرب من Corsica
            • 807 - Franks under Burchard [بحاجة لتوضيح] defeat Moors at Sardinia
            • 813 - Byzantines defeat Arabs
              • - Franks under Irmingar defeat Moors بالقرب من Majorca
                - Byzantines under Nasar destroy Arab fleet
              • 1123 عسقلان؟
              • 1137 - Venetians defeat Normans at Trani, Italy
              • 1149 Cape Malea - Venetians and Byzantine Greeks defeat Normans
              • 1153 Siege of Ascalon - Venetians defeat Fatimid Arabs بالقرب من Tel Aviv
              • 1156 January - Celtic ships defeat Viking squadron north of Scotland
              • 1161 Tangdao - Song forces defeat Jin forces
                  - Song forces defeat Jin forces
                • April 25 Dan-no-ura - Decisive victory for Minamoto clan off present-day Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Japan, ends Genpei War
                • 7 November - Byzantines under Alexios Branas defeat Normans at Demetrias (Volos), Greece
                • 1213 May 30 and 31 Damme - English under William Longsword sink most of fleet of France's King Philip II in the harbor of Damme
                • 1217 August 24 Dover (South Foreland) - The "Fight off Sandwich". Fleet of English Hubert and Burgh defeat French fleet of Eustace the Monk off Dover. There were actually 2 battles - this describes the 2nd
                • 1241 May 3 (First) Meloria - Pisans under Ansaldo de Mari defeat Genoese
                • 1263 - Settepozzi - A Venetian fleet of 38 ships under Gilberto Dandolo defeates a joint Byzantine-Genoese fleet of 48 ships off the Peloponnese
                • 1264 - Genoese defeat Venetians
                • 1266 Trapani - Venetians defeat Genoese
                • ca. 1273/1275 - Demetrias - Byzantine fleet defeats coalition of Lombard and Venetian lords of Euboea and Crete
                • before 1279 - Conrad Lancia defeats Muslim fleet بالقرب من Tunisia (details)
                • 1279 March 19 Yamen - Yuan Dynasty defeats Song Dynasty
                • 1282 October 11 - Peter de Queralt defeats Angevin fleet بالقرب من Reggio di Calabria (details)
                  • October 14 - Peter de Queralt defeats Angevin fleet بالقرب من Nicotera (details)
                  • August 6 (Second) Meloria - Genoese utterly destroy the Pisan fleet بالقرب من Tuscany, Italy
                  • September 4 (probably) Les Formigues (Las Hormigas) - Aragonese-Sicilians under Roger of Lauria defeat French under di Mari and de Orreo بالقرب من Barcelona
                  • 1304 August 18 (2 days) Zierikzee - French fleet under Genoese admiral Renier Grimaldi destroys Flemish fleet
                  • 1319 July 23 Chios - Knights Hospitaller and Genoese of Lordship of Chios score a crushing victory over an Aydinid fleet
                  • 1338 September 23 Arnemuiden - Philip VI of France beats English fleet of Edward III of England off the coast of Zeeland. It was the first naval battle using artillery. [1]
                  • 1340 June 24 Sluys - Edward III of England beats Franco-Genoese fleet of Philip VI of France off the coast of Flanders and gains control of the English Channel
                  • 1342 Guernsey
                  • 1350 August 29 (Old Style) L'Espagnols-sur-Mer - 50 English ships under Edward III and the Black Prince defeat 40 Castilian ships
                  • 1352 Bosporus - Genoese under Paganino Doria vs Venetians, Byzantine Greeks and Aragonese in Bosporus Strait
                  • 1353 August 29 La Loiera - Venetians and Aragonese defeat Genoese بالقرب من Sardinia
                  • 1354 Sapienza Genoese under Paganino Doria defeat Venetians under Niccolò Pisani in the southern Peloponnese
                  • 1363 August 30-October 4 Lake Poyang - Mings under Zhu Yuanzhang defeat Hans under Chen Youliang
                  • 1372 June 22 and 23 La Rochelle - Castilian fleet defeats English fleet بالقرب من La Rochelle
                  • 1378 - Venetians under Vettor Pisani defeat Genoese بالقرب من Cape d'Anzio
                  • 1379 May 7 Pola - Genoese under Luciano Doria defeat Venetians under Vittore Pisani بالقرب من Pula
                  • 1380 June Chioggia - Venetians under Andrea Contarini defeat Genoese
                  • 1403 October 7 Modon - French under Marshal Boucicaut defeat Venetians
                  • 1404-07 - Several battles
                  • 1416 May 29 - Venetians defeat Turks بالقرب من Gelibolu
                    • August 15 (OS?) Harfleur - English defeat French بالقرب من Harfleur
                    • April 20 - Fall of Constantinople - Turks fail to prevent Genoese supply ships reaching Constantinople
                    • 1509 - 3 فبراير ديو - نائب الملك البرتغالي على الهند يهزم أسطولاً مشتركاً من مصروسلطنة گجرات مقابل گجرات، الهند، ويسيطر على تجارة التوابل
                    • 1510 - Maltese under Prégent de Bidoux يهزمون البنادقة
                    • 1512? - الجنويون بقيادة أندريا دوريا يهزمون العرب في مدينة الجزائر
                    • 1512 August 10 St Mathieu - English defeat French off Brest Regent and Marie la Cordelière sunk
                    • 1526 - Swedes and Lübeckers defeat pirate fleet
                    • 1529 - الأتراك العثمانيون بقيادة خير الدين برباروسا يهزمون الاسبان
                    • 1535 مطلع يونيو - 20 Swedes/Danes/Prussians defeat 9 Lübeck ships
                    • 1535 June? - Swedes/Danes/Prussians defeat 10 Lübeck ships at Fyen
                    • 1538 28 سبتمبر پرڤزا - الأتراك العثمانيون بقيادة خير الدين برباروسا يهزمون الأسطول الاسباني-البندقي-الپاپوي
                    • 1545 July 18 and 19 The Solent - French attack English off Portsmouth Mary Rose sinks
                      • August 15 - English fight French off Portsmouth
                      • July 13 - English under Count Egmont defeat French under Marshal de Thermes off Gravelines
                      السنة التاريخ المعركة
                      1563 Action of 30 May Swedes capture three Danes before war is declared.
                      Action of 11 September Inconclusive [skirmish?] between Danes/Lübeckers and Swedes.
                      1564 Action of 30 May Swedes under Bagge [clash with?] Danes/Lübeckers under Trolle.
                      Action of 12 July A Swedish captain blows up his ship after a Danish attack.
                      Action of 12 August Swedes under Klas Horn defeat Danes under Herluf Trolle, southeast of Öland.
                      1565 Action of 4 June An indecisive battle between Danes/Lübeckers and Swedes بالقرب من Buchow.
                      Action of 7 July Swedes defeat Danes/Lübeckers between Bornholm and Rügen.
                      1566 Action of 26 July Swedes defeat Danes/Lübeckers between Öland and Gotland.
                      1568 Swedish fleet captures several Polish corsairs and drives off remainder. [2]
                      • 1568 September 23 - Spanish under Martin Enriquez defeat English under Hawkins at San Juan de Ulúa, Mexico Offsite link
                      • 1570 - English under Burrough and Hodsdon defeat Danes in the Baltic Sea
                        • July 15 - Turkish galliots under Uluch Ali defeat Maltese galleys under Saint-Clement بالقرب من Gozo
                        • October 7 Lepanto - Christian coalition decisively defeats Ottoman Turks in a large galley fight off western Greece
                        • September/October - Several skirmishes between Spanish/Venetians and Turks
                        • April 22 Borsele - Sea Beggars beat back a Spanish fleet under d'Avila
                        • May 26 Haarlemmermeer - Spanish under Bossu defeat Sea Beggars
                        • October 11 Zuiderzee - Sea Beggars under Cornelis Dirkszoon defeat Spanish under Bossu
                        • May 30 Battle of lillo - Sea Beggars under Boisot defeat a Spanish fleet
                        • June - Swedes capture 3 Lubeckers plus 15 merchantmen
                        • 1582 July 27 Battle of Vila Franca Alvaro de Bazán wins a second battle at the Azores in as many days.
                          navy defeats Shirahama Kenki pirate fleet.
                        • September - Spanish Armada in Ireland
                          - Spanish repel English بالقرب من the Azores
                      • August 14 Hansan Island - Korean navy defeats Japanese fleet in the bay of Hansan island.
                      • May 29 Sacheon - Korean Navy defeats Japanese [بحاجة لمصدر]
                      • November 1 Busan - Korean Navy defeats Japanese [3]
                      • October 26 Myeongnyang - Korean navy defeats Japanese.
                      • - Bizertans vs Genoese and Romans
                      • - Spanish defeat the English Islands Voyage بالقرب من the Azores.
                      • 1601 December 27 Bantam - Dutch defeat Portuguese in Bantam Bay
                      • 1602 October 3 Sluis - Dutch under Jacob van Duivenvoorde defeat Spanish under Frederik Spinola
                      • 1603 May 26 Sluis - Dutch under Joos de Moor beat back Spanish under Frederik Spinola
                      • ?? 1603 October - Tuscan galleys defeat Tunisians
                      • 1604 October - Tuscans defeat Tunisians (details)
                      • 1605 - Dutch fleet under Willem Haultain attacks and partly destroys a Spanish fleet of transport ships بالقرب من Dover
                      • 1606 August 17 Cape Rachado - Indecisive action between a Dutch fleet under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge and a Portuguese fleet بالقرب من Malacca
                        • September 21 Second battle of Cape Rachado - Dutch under Cornelis Matelief de Jonge destroy Portuguese ships
                        • October 20 - Tuscans under Beauregard defeat Turkish trade fleet (details)
                        • June 29 - Spanish-French raid on La Goulette, Tunisia (details)
                        • - Venetians defeat Turks بالقرب من Paxos (details)
                        • (late)? - Turks under Khalil defeat French under Fressinet بالقرب من Cyprus (details)
                        • (late)? - Turks vs French under Beaulieu
                        • October 10 - Tuscans vs Turks (details)
                        • November 29–30 Swally - British East India Company fleet defeats Portuguese fleet بالقرب من Surat, India
                        • July 17 and 18 - Spanish vs Dutch (same as next?)
                        • - Dutch under Spilbergen defeat Spanish under de Pulgar بالقرب من Valdivia, Peru (details)
                        • about March? - Spanish under Ribera defeat Tunisians at La Goulette (details)
                        • April 29 - Tuscans under Inghirami defeat Turks بالقرب من Euboea (details)
                        • July 14–16 - Spanish under Ribera defeat Turks in the first regular action between galleys and sailing ships in the Mediterranean (details)
                        • July - Spanish versus Dutch (details)
                        • about October (possible engagement) - Neapolitans/Sicilian galleys defeat larger Turkish galley fleet
                        • June 12 - Minor skirmish between Neapolitans/Sicilians and Venetians - Dutch defeat Spanish
                        • November 19 and 20 - Inconclusive battle between Sicilians and Venetians (details)
                        • July 2 and 3 - Dutch under Moy Lambert and Spanish under Vidazabal defeat Algerines
                        • December 23–28 - English vs Dutch بالقرب من Jakarta (details)
                        • March 1 - English vs Dutch بالقرب من Jakarta (details)
                        • May 31 - Dutch defeat French at the mouth of the Vilaine River
                        • - English defeat Portuguese
                        • June 26 - Tuscans defeat Bizertans (details)
                        • - English defeat Portuguese
                        • October - French vs ? بالقرب من La Rochelle (details)
                        • Dutch ships under Joachim Swartenhondt escorting a convoy repel a Spanish squadron بالقرب من Gibraltar
                        • February 1 and 3 - Portuguese defeat English and Dutch (details)
                        • June 26 - Bizertans defeat Maltese بالقرب من Syracuse, Sicily (details)
                        • September 15 - French under Soubise defeat hired Dutch ships بالقرب من Rochelle [بحاجة لتوضيح]
                        • June 21 - English defeat Venetians/French at Scanderoon (details)
                        • September 9 Dutch squadron under Piet Hein attacks and captures Spanish treasure fleet
                        • September 29 - French defeat English بالقرب من La Rochelle
                        • September 16 - Swedes defeat Holy Roman Empire بالقرب من Wismar (details)
                        • September 12–13 The Slaak - Dutch Zeeland fleet under Marinus Hollare defeats Spanish invasion fleet
                        • July 19 - Maltese galleys under Valdina defeat Tripolitans
                        • - Maltese under Villages defeat Turks
                        • - Maltese privateers defeat Turkish galleys
                        • August 25 - Dunkirk frigates under Jacob Collaart defeats Dutch escort capturing 24 fishing trawlers
                        • about September 25 - Spanish defeat Dutch West India Company convoy
                        • Spanish convoy commanded by Lope de Hoces captures 32 enemy ships in the English Channel on its return voyage to Spain.
                        • June - Maltese galleys defeat Tripolitan sailing ships بالقرب من Calabria
                        • about July 19 - French defeat Spanish in galley fight بالقرب من Genoa
                        • August 7 - Venetians under Capello defeat Algerians at Corfu
                        • August 22 - French under de Sourdis destroy Spanish galleons under Lope de Hoces at Guetaría (details)
                        • September 17–19 Calais - Running fight between Dutch under Maarten Tromp and Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo who seeks shelter at The Downs
                        • September 30 Mormugão - Dutch defeat Portuguese بالقرب من Goa
                        • October 31 Battle of the Downs - Dutch under Tromp defeat Spanish under Antonio de Oquendo in the English Channel
                        • end December - Spanish under Miguel de Horna defeat stronger French force
                        • June 15 - Dunkerquers defeat Dutch in the Shetland Isles (details)
                        • July? - French under Maillé Brézé defeat Spanish under Don Gomez de Sandoval
                        • - Several French vs Spanish
                        • May 17 and 18 - Spanish defeat French بالقرب من Pensacola
                        • September 1 and 2 ? - Spanish under Pietersen defeat French and Portuguese
                        • November 4 - Dutch under Gijssels defeat Spanish off Cape St Vincent (details)
                        • October - Portuguese defeat Spanish?
                        • 1644 May 16 - Danes defeat Dutch ships which have been hired to support Sweden (details)
                          • May 25 - Danes get slightly the better of 33 hired Dutch ships
                          • July 1 Colberger Heide (Colberg Heath) - Danish and Swedish fleets fight an inconclusive battle off NE Germany
                          • July 7 - Danes defeat Swedes in small battle (details)
                          • August 10 - Dutch fleet under Thijsen brushes past Danish fleet under King Christian IV in Kjoge Bay, Denmark (details)
                          • October 13 - Combined Swedish/Dutch fleet badly defeats Danish fleet بالقرب من Femern, Germany (details)
                          • 1644 September 28 - Maltese galleys defeat Turkish sailing ships بالقرب من Rhodes their subsequent stay in Venetian-held Crete provoked the outbreak of war (details)
                          • 1645 September 28 or 29 - Combined Christian fleet tries and fails to retake Canea (Chania) in Crete, from the Ottomans
                            • October 1 - Christians vs Turks بالقرب من Canea, Crete
                            • August 14 - Inconclusive fight between Christians and the Ottoman fleet anchored at Chania Bay, Crete
                            • August 25 - Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
                            • September 9 - Inconclusive skirmish between Christians and Turks
                            • May 12 Focchies - Venetians defeat large Turkish fleet بالقرب من western Turkey
                            • July 15 - Venetians vs Turks بالقرب من Candia, Crete (details)
                            • July 18 - Venetians defeat Turks بالقرب من Candia (details)
                            • May 16 - Turks under Murad defeat Venetians under Giuseppe Delfino in Dardanelles (details)
                            • June 21 - Turks retreat after skirmish with Venetians west of Milos
                            • May 18 - Venetians under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks and Algerines at Suazich (details)
                            • July 17–19 - Venetians, Maltese and Papal forces under Lazaro Mocenigo defeat Turks in Dardanelles (details)
                            • May 18 - Venetians defeat Turks in minor skirmish
                            • August 27 - Venetians and Maltese defeat Turks بالقرب من Milos, Greece (details)
                            • August - French under the Duc de Beaufort defeat Algerines at Cherchell, Algeria
                            • November 27 - French under d'Escrainville defeat Turks
                            • May 2 - French defeat Turks (details)
                            • about September - Barbary "Turks" defeat Venetians south of Crete (details)
                            • 1652 May 29 Goodwin Sands (Dover) - English under Robert Blake fire on Maarten Tromp's Dutch fleet off Dover without declaring war and initiate the First Anglo-Dutch War
                              • August 26 Plymouth - Michiel de Ruyter's 36 men-of-war hold off Ayscue's 45 men-of-war, driving them away
                              • September 7 Elba (Monte Cristo) - Dutch under Jan van Galen beat back English under Richard Badiley
                              • October 8 Kentish Knock (Zeeland Approaches) - English under Blake beat back Dutch under de With
                              • December 10 Dungeness - Dutch under Tromp defeat English under Blake
                              • March 13 Leghorn - Dutch under Johan van Galen defeat English under Badiley and Appleton
                              • June 12–13 Gabbard (North Foreland) - English defeat Dutch
                              • August 8–10 Scheveningen (Ter Heide, Texel) - Dutch under Maarten Tromp repulse English blockading fleet under George Monck with both sides retreating. Tromp is killed
                              • August 2 Vågen - English squadron repelled attempting to capture richly-laden Dutch merchant fleet in the bay of Bergen, Norway
                              • June 15 James River (Virginia)-Dutch under Abraham Crijnssen attacks Virginia tobacco fleet (Details)
                              • June 11–14 Four Days - Dutch under de Ruyter defeats English fleet commanded by Albermarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine
                              • August 4–5 St James's Day (North Foreland/Orfordness) - English under Albemarle and Prince Rupert of the Rhine defeat a Dutch fleet under de Ruyter
                              • June 9–14 Raid on the Medway - Dutch raid Medway river بالقرب من London. The English flagship, Royal Charles, is captured
                              • June 7 - Solebay (Southwold) Dutch fleet under de Ruyter vs combined English/French under York
                              • August 21 Texel (Kijkduin)
                              • 1645 September 9 Tamandare - Dutch squadron under Jan Lichthart destroys a Portuguese squadron under Jerônimo Serrão de Paiva at TamandaréBrazil
                              • 1645 - Algerian Barbary pirates attempted an attack on Edinburgh, Scotland
                              • 1646 La Naval de Manila - Two Spanish galleons with Spanish & Filipino crew repel a Dutch invasion fleet in 5 separate actions over several months around the Philippines
                              • 1646? - French under du Mé defeat Spanish
                              • 1646 14–16 June, Battle of Orbetello, Spanish defeat French invasion fleet commanded by Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé
                              • 1647 June 10 Puerto de Cavite - Spanish defeat Dutch attack بالقرب من Manila
                                • 1647 Neapolitan Republic (1647)- Spanish defeat French at Ischia, Pozzuoli and سالرنو and force French out of southern Italy.
                                • October 20 - Parliamentarians capture French frigate
                                • May 2 - Dutch defeat Portuguese بالقرب من Colombo (details)
                                • - French under Vendôme defeat Spanish بالقرب من Barcelona
                                • September 12 and 13 - Danes and Swedes fight inconclusively بالقرب من Moen, Denmark (details)
                                • April 30 - Small running battle between Dutch and Danes against Swedes (details)
                                • - Dutch/Danes under de Ruyter defeat Swedes and liberate Nyborg
                                • July (possible engagement) - English defeat Tripolitans
                                • January - English defeat Tripolitans
                                • April 22 Agosta (Etna) - French fleet under Duquesne and Dutch/Spanish fleet under de Ruyter fight to a draw. De Ruyter is mortally wounded
                                • June 2 Palermo - French under Comte de Vivonne defeat Dutch/Spanish under De la Cerda and Den Haen
                                • May 25 and 26/June 3 and 4 - Dutch/Danish fleet under Niels Iuel defeat Swedes under Baron Creutz between Bornholm and Rugen in the بحر البلطيق
                                • June 1/11 Öland - Dutch/Danish fleet defeats Swedish fleet south of Öland in the Baltic Sea
                                • May 31 and June 1/11 - Danes defeat Swedes between Femern and Warnemunde, Baltic Sea (details)
                                • July 1/11 and 2 Kjöge Bay - Danes and Dutch defeat Swedish fleet
                                • December Tobago - French under Jean II d'Estrées defeat Dutch under Jacob Binckes
                                • June 26, June 28, July 2 and July 20 - Series of skirmishes culminating in a Danish victory over Sweden
                                • September 30 - Spanish defeat Brandenburgers بالقرب من Cape St Vincent (details)
                                • October 4 - Venetians vs Turks بالقرب من Mitylene, Greece
                                • French vs English بالقرب من Casquets
                                • July 10 Beachy Head (Beveziers) - French defeat Anglo-Dutch fleet
                                • - French vs English and Dutch بالقرب من Madras
                                • September 8 - Venetians fight the combined fleet of Turkey, Algiers, Tripoli and Tunis بالقرب من Mitylene, Greece (details)
                                • - French defeat Spanish بالقرب من Cape Finisterre
                                • - French defeat Tripolitans بالقرب من Malta
                                • April 16 - French defeat English (details)
                                • September 15 and 18 - Venetians under Contarini vs Turks under Mezzo Morto
                                • June 17 Dogger Bank - French defeat Dutch
                                • - French and English fight in Newfoundland
                                • - Fight بالقرب من San Domingo
                                • July 14 Bay of Fundy - French under Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville defeat English
                                • August 22 - Venetians under Contarini vs Turks and their allies under Mezzo Morto بالقرب من Andros (details)
                                • 1702 June 26 - Small-ship action between Sweden and Russia on Lake Ladoga
                                  • September 7 - Small-ship action between Sweden and Russia on Lake Ladoga
                                  • July 31 and August 17 - Danes under Sehested fight and then defeat Swedes under Henck بالقرب من Rugen (details)
                                  • August 4 - Very minor engagement between Russia and Sweden
                                  • September 28 - Very minor engagement between Denmark and Sweden
                                  • July 19 - Danish attack on Strömstad is defeated
                                  • July 13 - Danes under Rosenpalm defeat Swedes at Strömstad
                                  • 1701 August 17 - Maltese raid on La Goulette
                                  • 1702 May 29, Battle of Tourville [بحاجة لتوضيح] next to Cape de la Hague, north of Cherbourg. French battle fleet attacked by the Anglo-Dutch fleet. French fleet flees to Saint-Malo. See: Bosscher, (PH. M.) Oorlogsvaart. In: MGN, deel III, p. 367-368.
                                  • 1702 August 19–24 (OS) - English under Benbow - French under Ducasse draw (details)
                                    • October 23 Vigo Bay - Anglo-Dutch fleet defeat French and Spanish and destroy Spanish treasure fleet
                                    • June 25 - Maltese defeat Tripolitans بالقرب من Cape Santa di Leuca
                                    • - Portuguese defeat Indians بالقرب من Cheul (details)
                                    • July 19 Matapan - Venetians and their allies vs Turks in Gulf of Laconia, Greece
                                    • July 20–22 - Venetians vs Turks (details)
                                    • August 11 Cape Passaro - British under George Byng defeat Spanish بالقرب من Sicily
                                    • August 9 and 10 - Turks defeat Russians
                                    • 1741 January 7 and 8 - British vs French in West Indies
                                      • February 12 - Minor British vs French in Gibraltar Strait
                                      • March–May Cartagena de Indias - Decisive Spanish victory against a large British fleet during the War of Jenkins' Ear
                                      • August 10 Colachel - Raja of Travancore in India defeats Dutch naval force at Colachel
                                      • October 25 2nd Cape Finisterre - British under Hawke defeat French under de l'Etenduère
                                      • October 12 - British vs Spanish بالقرب من Havana (details)
                                      • 1755 June 8 Gulf of St. Lawrence - British under Boscawen defeat French under Hocquart
                                      • 1756 May 20 Minorca - French under la Galissonnière defeat British under John Byng
                                      • 1757 early - French under Kersaint de Coëtnempren vs British at San Domingo
                                      • 1758 - Minor French under Duchaffault vs British under Boscawen بالقرب من Ushant
                                        • - Minor French under Durevest vs British under Saunders بالقرب من Gibraltar Strait
                                        • April 29 Cuddalore - British under Pocock defeat French under d'Ache
                                        • August 3 Negapatam - British under Pocock defeat French under d'Ache
                                        • September 10 - Light Swedish force defeats similar Prussian force بالقرب من Szczecin
                                        • September 10 Pondicherry - British fight French but are too damaged to pursue
                                        • November 20 Quiberon Bay/Cardinaux - British defeat French بالقرب من St Nazaire
                                        • 1770 May 27 and 28 - Russians vs Turks بالقرب من southern Greece (details)
                                          • June 4 - Minor Russians vs Turks south of Athens (details)
                                          • July 5–7 Chesma - Russian fleet defeats and burns Turkish fleet off western Turkey
                                          • September 3 - Russians under Kinsbergen vs Turks (details)
                                          • September? - Russians vs Turks (details)
                                          • 1776 October 11 Valcour Island - Benedict Arnold escapes the British fleet under Guy Carleton
                                          • 1778 April 19 Frederica Naval Action
                                            • July 27 First Ushant - British under Keppel with 30 ships of the line fight inconclusive action against French under d'Orvilliers with 28 ships
                                            • end - French vs British under Hyde Parker بالقرب من Fort Royal, Martinique
                                            • April 17 Martinique - British under Rodney fail to defeat French under de Guichen
                                            • August 9 Spanish-French fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures 55 ship British convoy off Cape Santa María
                                            • Spanish-French fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova captures 29 ship British convoy
                                            • April 19 Fort Royal
                                            • - Minor French under de Grasse vs British under Hood
                                            • - Minor French under Destouches vs British under Arbuthnot
                                            • July 21 Cape Breton Island - French attack British convoy
                                            • August 5 (15 NS?) Dogger Bank - Draw between Dutch and British squadrons
                                            • September 5 Chesapeake Bay - French under de Grasse drive off British under Graves
                                            • December 12 Second Ushant - British under Kempenfelt capture part of a French convoy from de Guichen
                                            • February 17 Sadras - First fierce but indecisive fight between French under Suffren and British under Hughes بالقرب من south-east India
                                            • April 9 and 12 The Saintes - British under Rodney decisively defeat French under de Grasse in the West Indies
                                            • April 12 Providien - 2nd fight between Suffren and Hughes off India
                                            • April 21 - British defeat French
                                            • July 6 Negapatam - 3rd fight between Suffren and Hughes off India
                                            • September 3 Trincomalee - Hughes fleet damages Suffren's but withdraws
                                            • October 20 Cape Spartel - Franco-Spanish fleet under Luis de Córdova y Córdova fights British fleet under Richard Howe in indecisive battle. Howe resupplies Gibraltar
                                            • 1787 August 30 - Russians vs Turks
                                              • September 27, 28 and 30 - Russians vs Turks
                                              • October 15 - Russians defeat Turks
                                              • July 14/25 Ochakov - Russia defeats Turkey بالقرب من Fidonisi
                                              • September 8 and 9 Tendra - Russians defeat Turks
                                              • October 31 - Russians defeat Turks at the Sulina mouth
                                              • November 17, 18 - Russians defeat Turks at Tultcha
                                              • November 29 - Russians defeat Turks at Ismail (details)
                                              • November 30, December 1, 2, 4-7 - Russians defeat Turks
                                              • August 11 Cape Kaliakra - Slight Russian victory over Turks in a largely inconclusive battle بالقرب من Bulgaria

                                              The Russian calendar was eleven days behind the Swedish during the 18th century, so Russian dates are eleven days earlier.


                                              Disentangling Domesticity

                                              It’s good to see ‘Domesticity and Domestic Life’ as the topic of a joint event by the Hellenic and Roman societies on 9 March 2021. Recognition of the scope and significance of the domestic realm in classical societies has become increasingly widely acknowledged since the 1990s. And yet, as we have learned more about houses and households in the Greek world, it has become increasingly difficult to silo ‘the domestic’ to represent it as the realm of private life, which fed into, but was largely a thing apart from, the realm of male-dominated civic and political activity, traditionally valued as more important.

                                              Several outstanding articles in JHS since the mid-2000s (and now part of a new collection by Cambridge) have picked up on various aspects of the complex entanglements between different conceptual and physical spaces of social interaction, and the activities associated with them, which don’t divide neatly into public and private or domestic and civic. An excellent example is Julia Kindt’s (2015) paper ‘Personal religion: a productive category for the study of ancient Greek religion?’, where she establishes that traditional categories of polis/public and oikos/private religion work very poorly for typologising many kinds of religious activities and behaviours which cross-cut, or even contravene these conceptual categories. Analogously, Kostas Vlassopoulos (2011) in ‘Greek slavery: from domination to property and back again’ is able to tease out the agency of slaves, limited as it was, operating across a range of interlinked domestic, communal and civic arenas by suggesting that Greek societies conceptualised slavery primarily a relationship of domination rather than as a relationship of property.

                                              In a completely different domain, the simultaneously domestic and communal spaces of elite hospitality in the seventh century BC Cyclades were united in the use, meanings and messaging resonating from a class of beautiful relief pithoi. These are insightfully discussed by Susanne Ebbinghaus (2005) ‘Protector of the city, or the art of storage in early Greece’. Here she argues that the epic scenes represented on these storage vessels, including our earliest representation of the Trojan Horse (see image), suggest that unlike normal ‘domestic’ pithoi hidden in a storeroom or buried in the ground to their necks, these pots were designed for display, perhaps in the reception/dining area of a large house where they functioned as ‘conspicuous storage’. In effect, putting storage on display in this way showed off the wealth and resources of a household to visitors and thereby community at large. It also demonstrates the complex intermingling of everyday life and domestic activities with communal political rivalries for prestige and power.

                                              What these examples show is that domestic life ranged far beyond the house and household, underpinning and permeating many aspects and institutions of ancient Greek societies.

                                              The Journal of Hellenic Studies articles cited are currently free to access alongside selected research from the Journal of Roman Studies in a new collection from Cambridge (free to access until 30 April 2021).


                                              The Society of Astrologers (c.1647-1684): Promoting Astrology in Church and in the Pub

                                              Astrology is once again in vogue. In the last year, astrologers have taken to Zoom, Instagram, and TikTok with phenomenal success. Given astrology’s ability to provide guidance, explanation, and hope during times of crisis, this should come as no surprise. Yet, as an article in Vogue this month noted (yes, astrology is literally in Vogue), at a time when “following the science” is so critical, astrology’s current appeal seems somewhat “paradoxical”. Science, after all, would seem to be astrology’s toughest opponent.

                                              People facing plague and quarantine in early modern Europe also turned to astrologers. But rather than being chastised for supporting a ‘pseudoscience’, these people were more likely to be reprimanded for engaging with paganism. As John Raunce put it in 1650, astrology was “Diabolical” and “Idolatrous”, and its historical origins in pagan religion revealed its methods to be “the Devil’s Instruments”.

                                              For many of astrology’s early modern opponents, the religious status of astrology was more significant than its ‘scientific’ status. The question wasn’t so much whether the stars influenced us, but whether good Christians should study that influence to predict the future. As I show in my article, in the late 1640s a group of English astrologers mounted a response to this dilemma. The group was the Society of Astrologers, and they met for lavish feasts in London pubs for nearly four decades. The Society was convinced astrology was condoned by God. So, in response to the ministers who railed against astrology from their pulpits, the Society decided to commission their own preachers to deliver a set of sermons justifying the practice of astrology.

                                              My article examines the six of these sermons that have survived. One of their major arguments was that the story of the Magi who followed a star to see baby Jesus was evidence that God used astrology to both literally and allegorically bring gentiles to Christ. I also show that, to accompany their public relations campaign, the Society encouraged astrological education through new textbooks, apprenticeships, and the postal service.

                                              Yet the Society of Astrologers was ultimately fighting a losing battle. Their efforts to establish astrology’s religious credentials failed to convince their contemporaries. The group disbanded in the mid-1680s, when much of the educated elite was increasingly dissatisfied with the theory as well as the practice of astrology. Although it’s tempting to point to experimental science as an explanation, it doesn’t provide a full answer. Many scientists of the early Royal Society were also members of the Society of Astrologers. Instead, the fact the Society of Astrologers invested so much into defending astrology’s religious legitimacy suggests they saw this as a primary barrier to its acceptance. A key lesson here is that when seeking to understand why astrology became marginalised in mainstream western culture, we cannot assume the reasons one might reject astrology today are the same reasons astrology was rejected in the past.


                                              Comments

                                              The financial markets held their breath on September 12, 2012. Once the Bundesverfassungsgericht, the German constitutional court, declared the European Stabilisation Mechanism compatible with the German Basic Law under certain conditions specified in its judgement, share prices went up. Finally, or so it seemed, the European Central Bank had the means to contain the crisis and the Euro would not break up.

                                              But the decision by the German constitutional court is only the latest example of the heavy political contestation of European law. As the impressive array of articles in this issue shows, a variety of supranational, transnational and national actors in the legal field have continuously fought over the scope and interpretation of European law – from the European Commission’s Legal Service to transnational law networks and national epistemic communities and courts. To a great extent these conflicts have shaped the way in which the present-day European Union has operated over time. Surprisingly, most historians and lawyers have for a long time overlooked the political contestation of European law in historical perspective. Providing a lot of fresh evidence from fascinating new sources, the articles in this issue make a great contribution to addressing this lacuna in research on contemporary Europe.

                                              Wolfram Kaiser
                                              Professor of European Studies, University of Portsmouth, and Visiting Professor, College of Europe, Bruges


                                              Watch the video: ΨΗΦΙΑΚΗ ΑΝΑΠΑΡΑΣΤΑΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΜΑΧΗΣ ΤΟΥ ΜΑΡΑΘΩΝΑ ΤΟ 490 ΠΧ