Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV

Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV

Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV was the designation given to a version of the S.S.W. E III that would have had a circular fuselage cross section.

The S.S.W. E I was a shoulder winged monoplane with a flat sided fuselage and powered by a Siemens-Halske Sh.I rotary engine. One prototype and twenty production aircraft were built. It was followed by six S.S.W. E IIIs, which were very similar but used a Oberursel U I rotary engine in place of the Siemens engine.

The S.S.W. E IV would have been another shoulder winged monoplane, again powered by the Siemens engine, but with a new fuselage with a circular cross section. None were built.


Guide to the Al Zakrzewski Collection, 1954-2011 F002-12

Al Zakrzewski Collection, Document name or type, Folder number, Box number, Series number, History of Aviation Collection, Special Collections Department, Eugene McDermott Library, The University of Texas at Dallas.

Administrative Information

Publication Information

Special Collections Department, History of Aviation Collection 10 September 2013

800 West Campbell Road, MC33
Richardson, TX, 75080-3021
972-883-2570
[email protected]

Revision Description

Additional materials were found after the collection had been processed in 2013. The items were incorporated into the existing collection and the finding aid has been updated. 2 November 2014

Access Restrictions

Materials in this collection are open for research.

Literary Rights Statement

Permission to publish material from this collection in any form, current or future, must be obtained from the Special Collections Department, Eugene McDermott Library, The University of Texas at Dallas.

Provenance Statement

The Al Zakrzewski Collection was donated to the History of Aviation Collection, Special Collections Department, Eugene McDermott Library, The University of Texas at Dallas, by his widow Linda Zakrzewski on March 27, 2012.

Note to the Researcher

Because of the value of the postcards, especially the Sanke cards, duplicates were kept within the collection. All postcards, photographs, and negatives were taken from their original album or receptacle and housed in archival safe, polypropylene sleeves, exept the albums of Series II, Subseries 1. and 2.

Series I, Subseries 2. and 3., some cards are actual photographs mounted onto postcard paper.

Series II, Subseries 2., the Album Unidentified was photocopied onto acid-free paper and the Image ID Numbers were listed there. View these copies first to choose and order images.

Materials Removed List

0.08 linear feet, 1 folder of duplicate photographs and negatives were deaccessioned.

Controlled Access Headings

Personal Name(s)

Subject(s)

Biographical Sketch

Allan G. Zakrzewski (Al) was born in 1954 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He is the oldest of four children born to Mary Ann and Gilbert Zakrzewski. Zakrzewski graduated second in his class from Pulaski High School and worked at a local McDonald&rsquos restaurant to put himself through college, earning a Master of Science Degree in Geophysics from the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee.

Zakrzewski&rsquos love for WWI aviation began when he started playing the Milton Bradley game Dogfight as a young child. He collected plastic airplane models made by Aurora and continued collecting these rare models whenever he came across them. As his interest grew, Al expanded his collection to include Sanke cards, photos, prints and any publication pertaining to WWI aviation. During the last 15 years of his life, he started purchasing rare aviation medals, ribbons and decorations. His medal collection ranged from pilot&rsquos wings to decorations earned by pilots from all countries during WWI. Al always dreamed of including an original Blue Max in his collection, but purchased high quality imitations instead.

Al was a member of Cross and Cockade International and Orders and Medals Society of America. He was also a Charter member of The League of World War One Aviation Historians and an active member in the affiliated Houston Gulf Coast Chapter. In 2001 he became an editor for Over the Front quarterly magazine. While a member of the Gulf Cost Chapter of the League of WWI Aviation Historians Al&rsquos contributions earned him the Thornton D. Hooper Award for Excellence for his article on "Monoplane Fighters of World War I." In 2007, he received his second Thornton D. Hooper Award for "An Evening with Rodney Williams, 17th Aero Squadron."

Al passed away suddenly from cancer in June of 2011, leaving his wife Linda and four sons. Al had worked at Exxon Mobil for 28 years prior to his death.

Source Al Zakrzewski Collection, Biographical Sketch sent by Linda Zakrzewski on June 6, 2013, Holding File, History of Aviation Collection, Special Collections Department, Eugene McDermott Library, The University of Texas at Dallas.

Scope and Content

This collection contains Sanke postcards and postcards from other publishers, such as Neue Photographische Gesellschaft (NPG), Rotophot Berlin (RPH), or Gustav Liersch & Co., photographs, copy photographs, exhibition catalogue, autographed document, articles, negatives, and correspondence that were created and/or collected by Al Zakrzewski. The Al Zakrzewski Collection is housed in five photo album boxes and three non-standard boxes totaling 7.7 linear feet.

The collection arrived in excellent condition and was well structured. The creator organized the Sanke cards using the suggested arrangement on the Sanke Cards website (http://www.sanke-cards.com/page3.htm), which is alphabetically by last name and then by Sanke card number. Original order from the individual albums was retained. The archivist identified four series with the first series being the Postcard Series, which is further organized into five subseries: 1. Album 1, German Pilots, 2. Album 2, Aircraft, 3. Album 3, German, French, United States, Japan, and Great Britain, 4. Album 4 and Album 5, Various Aviation Topics.

Subseries 1. depicts all the aces and famous pilots of World War I. Some cards contain correspondence and/or are signed in front by the pilot. One postcard shows an Euler 1911 Pusher Biplane.

Subseries 2. shows aircraft, aerodromes, and people. Some of the cards are correspondence.

The correspondence in this series talks about everyday topics, events of troop movement, and safe arrival at the destination. Of interest is the postcard sent from Turkey to the German Reich.

Subseries 3. contains German non aviation as well as aviation topics, French pilots and airplanes, the latter mostly from the pre World War I era, United States, Japanese, Great Britain and Italian airplanes. Of interest is the postcard depicting Eugene Jacques Bullard, the first African American aviator and one signed postcard from the French aviator Alfred Leblanc.

Subseries 4. comprises different aviation topics such as early aviation airplanes, scenes, Zeppelin, and the bombing of London.

The second series is the Photograph Series, which is further organized into three subseries: 1. Album Lt. Thomas, 2. Album Unidentified, and 3. Loose Photographs.

Subseries 1. depicts in images Lt. Thomas' careers as an aviator of the United States as well as his private life.

Subseries 2. contains Harley Davidson sidecar Crown Point Road Race Circuit Call Field, Texas Curtiss J, and Curtiss JN-4 Jenny Family.

Subseries 3. shows various German aces, pilots, and aircraft, such as Freiherr Manfred von Richthofen, Immelmann, Oskar Boelcke, Ernst Udet, Bodenschatz, Werner Voß, Hermann Göring, and Anthony Fokker and many others as well as aircraft ranging from A.E.G. to Siemens, and a private aircraft collection display. One set contains images from the Imperial War Museum in London, Great Britain and focuses on German aircraft. One set is from the German historian and aviation writer and collector Heinz J. Nowarra that also contains images from other collectors and comprises German and Austo-Hungarian airplanes ranging from A.E.G. to Siemens-Schuckert Werke.

One set depicts British airplanes. French pilots are shown with their aircraft displaying unit markings. Depicted are British R.A.F. Squadron No. 1, Squadron No. 24, Squadron No. 22, Squadron No. 25, Squadron No. 29, Squadron No. 40, Squadron No. 56, Squadron No. 74, Squadron No. 85, Squadron No. 139, and Squadron No. 147 and British Pilots A-Z, Richfield aerodrome, Aero Squadrons and Lafayette Esquadrille. Featured are Oshkosh Airshow, Lone Star Flight Museum, unidentified show, Roger Freeman's Vintage Aviation Services of Milton, Texas.

The third series is the Negatives Series, which is a pictorial history of an unidentified American soldier on his deployment to France during the First World War and shows the Transatlantic crossing, arrival in France, visit in Paris, Verdun and other French cities, R&R, warfare, the trenches, quarters, troop transportation, heavy military equipment, people, pilots and airplanes.

The fourth and final series is the Topics Series, containing a pass for leaving camp, correspondence between Richard Mosgeller and Al Zakrzewski including images of the ACES magazine, correspondence between Fred Freeman and Zakrzewski, and a postcard booklet from Langley Flied, Hampton, VA.

Of interest are the printed pages from La Guerre Aérienne supplements. These are portraits of French pilots and aces as well as American and Italian pilots, some of which contain the printed signature. Various of these pages have biographical information what appears to be from the Over the Front magazine. The booklets are exhibition catalogues to benefit children of French aviators killed in action.

Though mainly aviation related the philatelist and postcard collector will find this collection as a good source for research topics as well.

Series Description

The Al Zakrzewski Collection is organized in four series:

Series I. Postcards 2 linear feet (two photo album boxes), 1899-1931.

Arranged in four subseries: 1. Album 1 German Pilots, 2. Album 2 Aircraft, 3. Album 3 German, French, United States, Japan, Great Britain and Italian, and 4. Album 4 and Album 5 Various Aviation Topics.

Subseries 1. Album 1 German Personnel 1 linear foot (one photo album box), 1913-1922.

Arranged alphabetically by last name and Sanke card number.

Subseries 2. Album 2 Aircraft 0.08 linear feet (seven folders), 1910-1919.

Arranged alphabetically by manufacturer name and Sanke card number.

Subseries 3. Album 3 German, French, United States, Japan, Great Britain and Italian 0.08 linear feet (nine folders), 1899-1922.

Arranged by countries' name.

Subseries 4. Album 4 and 5 Various Aviation Topics 0.04 linear feet (one folder), 1911-1931.

Series II. Photographs 4.6 linear feet (three photo album boxes and two non-standard boxes), circa 1917-2001.

Arranged in three subseries: 1. Album Lt. Thomas, 2. Album Unidentified, and 3. Loose Photographs.

Subseries 1. Album Lt. Thomas 0.8 linear feet (one non-standard box), circa 1917-1930.

Arranged in original order.

Subseries 2. Album Unidentified 0.8 linear feet (one non-standard box), 1919-1922

Arranged in original order.

Subseries 3. Loose Photographs 3 linear feet (three photo album boxes), 1912-2001.

Arranged by topic and there within either alphabetically by manufacturer or persons name, numerically by Zakrzweski's personal numbering scheme, or by the Imperial War Museum's classification scheme.

Series III. Negatives 0.1 linear ft. (one folder in non-standard box), 1918-1919.

Arranged in original order.

Series IV. Topics 0.3 linear ft. (one half-size manuscript box and one folder in non-standard box), 1919-1998.

Related Materials

Additional Sources

For more information regarding Sanke cards view the website: http://www.sanke-cards.com/page3.htm.

Following books can be found in the History of Aviation Collection:

Lance J. Bronnenkant, The Imperial German Eagles in World War I : their postcards and pictures, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History, c2006, HAC D522.27 .B76 2006

Norman L.R. Franks, German aces of World War I : the pictorial record, Atglen, PA : Schiffer Publishing, 2004, HAC D604 .F7344 2004

Charles Woolley, The Sanke cards : World War I German aviators, Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, 2003, HAC D604 .W66 2003

For other World War I collections consult the finding aids posted on the Special Collections website under George H. Williams, Jr. World War I Aviation Library: http://www.utdallas.edu/library/specialcollections/hac/worldwar1/index.html

Image ID

It is the researcher's responsibility to secure permission from copyright holders of materials to which this institution does not own copyright.

Images in this collection are identified by a unique number that provides information about the format, record group, collection, box, folder, and image numbers. Please use this number when ordering reproductions of images from this collection.

Record Group Code

1 = CAT/Air American Archives

3 = Lighter than Air Archives

4 = George H. Williams, Jr., World War I Aviation Library

5 = History of Aviation Archives

9 = Cecil H. and Ida M. Green Collection

10 = Belsterling Collection

13 = Chance Vought Archives

14 = Twirly Birds Archives

Image Format Code

Example: 4AZ-1-1-PB1

4 = George H. Williams, Jr., World War I Aviation Library

AZ = Al Zakrzewski Collection

Images archived in plastic image holders may also have a location code in the format: 1/TL. In this example, the number is the sheet number and the letters indicate the top left position on the sheet. Position indicators are T = top, L = left, R = right, M = middle, and B = bottom. Position indicators may be combined to describe the position on the sheet, as shown in this example.

Collection Inventory

Series I. Postcards

Subseries 1. Album 1, German Pilots

Letter A. 1913-1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-1-PB1 through 4AZ-1-1-PB27.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 1

Postcard Description

Prinz Oskar von Preußen, Prinz Joachim von Preußen, Alexander Büttner, Goeben, group photos, Adam, Allmenröder, v. Ahlen, Freiherr von Althaus, and Anslinger.

Letter B. 1916-1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-2-PB1 through 4AZ-1-2-PB107.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 2

Postcard Description

Baeumer, Baldamus, Banfield, Bernert, Berr, Berthold, Bertrab, Blume, Böhme, Boelcke, Immelmann, Boenisch, Bongartz, Bolle, Brandenburg, Buckler, and Buddecke.

Letter C. 1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-3-PB1 through 4AZ-1-3-PB11.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 3

Postcard Description

Christiansen, von Cossel, and Windisch.

Letter D. Circa 1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-4-PB1 through 4AZ-1-4-PB9.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 4

Postcard Description

Dannhuber, Dossenbach, Eisenmenger, Gund, and Dostler.

Letters E-F. 1916-1918 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-5-PB1 through 4AZ-1-5-PB29.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 5

Postcard Description

von Eschwege, Fabeck, Fahlbusch, Festner, Falke, Fokker, Francke, Frankl, Frickart, Fricke, and Alfred Friedrich.

Letter G. Undated Sanke cards 4AZ-1-6-PB1 through 4AZ-1-6-PB13.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 6

Postcard Description

Gerlich, Gontermann, Göttsch, and Greim.

Letter H. 1916-1918 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-7-PB1 through 4AZ-1-7-PB32.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 7

Postcard Description

Heibert, Heß, Hans Hesse, Helmuth Hirth, von Hoeppner, Walter Höhndorf, Höhne, and Horn.

Letters I-J. 1916-1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-8-PB1 through 4AZ-1-8-PB44.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 8

Postcard Description

Max Immelmann, Jakobs, and Jörke.

Letter K. Circa 1917-1922 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-9-PB1 through 4AZ-1-9-PB23.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 9

Postcard Description

Keller, von Keudell, Kirmaier, Kirschstein, Klein, Kleine, Könnecke, von Kneußl, Kossmahl, and Kroll.

Letter L. 1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-10-PB1 through 4AZ-1-10-PB18.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 10

Postcard Description

Laumann, Leffers, Leonhardy, von der Linde, Loerzer, Loewe, and Loewenhardt.

Letter M. 1916 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-11-PB1 through 4AZ-1-11-PB30.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 11

Postcard Description

Manschott, Menckhoff, Carl Meyer, Hans Müller, Max Müller, and Max Mulzer.

Letters N-P. Undated Sanke cards 4AZ-1-12-PB1 through 4AZ-1-12-PB30.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 12

Postcard Description

Nathanel, Nielebock, Parschau, von Keudell, Freiherr von Pechmann, Pfeifer, Pippart, Plüschow, Prinz Friedrich Sigismund von Preußen, and Pütter.

Letters R. 1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-13-PB1 through 4AZ-1-13-PB34.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 13

Postcard Description

Ray, Freiherr Lothar von Richthofen, Freiherr Manfred von Richthofen, Jagdstaffel Richthofen, Albatros DV, Reimann, Rosencrantz, Peter Rieper, and Rumey.

Letters S. 1917-1918 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-14-PB1 through 4AZ-1-14-PB22.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 14

Postcard Description

Schaefer, Schleich, Schleiffer, Jul. Schmidt, Otto Schmidt, Schulte, Schreiber, Frank Seydler, and Stabbert.

Letters T. 1918 March 25 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-15-PB1 through 4AZ-1-15-PB12.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 15

Postcard Description

Thom, Thomsen, Thuy, and Ritter von Tutschek.

Letters U-V. 1917 October 3 Sanke cards 4AZ-1-16-PB1 through 4AZ-1-16-PB13.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 16

Material Removed List

4AZ-1-16-PB3 depicting Udet and signed by him moved to HAC Safe, Shelf 2.

Postcard Description

Udet (one card is signed by him), Ulbrich, Ultsch, Veltjens, and Voß.

Letters W-Z. Undated Sanke cards 4AZ-1-17-PB1 through 4AZ-1-17-PB30.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 1 17

Postcard Description

Wagner, Wendelmuth, Wendisch, Windisch, Wintgens, Fokker, Wolff, Wüsthoff, Zander, and Zorer.

Subseries 2. Album 2, German Aircraft

Manufacturers A-Z. 1915-1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-1-PB1 through 4AZ-2-1-PB23.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 1

Postcard Description

A.E.G. 1915 Flying Boat, Albatros B.II (L2), Albatros C.I (L6), Fokker M 8, Germania Type C (K.D.D., Kampf Doppeldecker), Jeannin 1914 Taube, L.V.G. biplane, Pfalz E.V, flying boat, Rumpler Flugboot, and Rumpler C.

Sanke Cards No. 37, 98-187. 1913 October Sanke cards 4AZ-2-2-PB1 through 4AZ-2-2-PB13.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 2

Postcard Description

Aerodrome Johannisthal, Wilhelmshaven, scenes, Fokker monoplane, Max Schüler, AGO pusher biplane (Känguruh), Rumpler Taube (Dove), 1913, Dr. Huth monoplane at Johannisthal, Beck with Kondor Eindecker, Victor Stoeffler with Aviatik Pfeil (Arrow) Biplane, Fokker E, and LVG biplane.

Sanke Cards No. 203-285. 1910-1919 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-3-PB1 through 4AZ-2-3-PB36.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 3

Postcard Description

Aviatik Pfeil (Arrow) Monoplane, Albatros Taube (Dove) Amphibian (Typ Bodensee), Union Flugzeug-Werke Pfeil, Harlan-Pfeil-Taube, Rumpler Taube (Dove), 1913, Pégoud, LVG Monoplane System Schneider, LVG E.I, Rumpler B.I (Typ 4A), Ago-Militär biplane, LVG C.II, Deutsche Flugzeugwerke biplane, Krieger Taube, Jeannin 1914 Taube, Codron biplane, Deperdussin monoplane, Farman biplane, Morane-Saulnier monoplane, Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2, Avro 504, AGO DV.3, and Rep [Breguet] monoplane.

Sanke Cards No. 300-370. 1915-1916 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-4-PB1 through 4AZ-2-4-PB23.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 4

Postcard Description

Albatros Militär biplane, visit of crown princess at the troops, Fokker monoplane, Ago Wasserflugzeug, Dr. Geest Möwe monoplane, Germania biplane, aircraft crash, Rumpler Wasserflugzeug, Ago biplane, Jeannin 1914 Taube, and French aircraft.

Sanke Cards No. 406-440. 1917-1918 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-5-PB1 through 4AZ-2-5-PB8


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 5

Postcard Description

Ago biplane, LFG biplane, Rumpler biplane DFW biplane, and LFG Roland C.II Walfisch (Whale).

Sanke Cards No. 900-903. 1915-1917 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-6-PB1 through 4AZ-2-6-PB11.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 6

Postcard Description

Gotha Wasserflugzeug, Albatros Wasserflugzeug, and Rumpler Marine Flugboot.

Sanke Cards No. 1006-1074, Unnumbered. 1915-1918 Sanke cards 4AZ-2-7-PB1 through 4AZ-2-7-PC71.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 7

Postcard Description

Ago Seaplane, Gotha LD 5, Gotha LD 6a, Aviatik C biplane, Gotha (Ursinus) G.I, A.E.G. G.IV, Handley Page O/100 (H.P.11), Fokker E Family Monoplane Fighters, LFG Roland C.II Walfisch (Whale), SPAD VII (S.7), Sopwith Triplane, Hispano Suiza Triplane, DFW C.V, Gotha G.V, A.E.G. J.I, Albatros C.VII (L18), Halberstadt D.II, Pfalz Dr.I, Pfalz Dr.III, and seaplane navy number 219.

Subseries 3. Album 3, German, French, United States, Japan, Great Britain and Italian

German. 1899-1915 Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-8-PB1 through 4AZ-2-8-PC6.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 8

Postcard Description

1899 to 1900 millennium postcard, soldiers in the field, Otto Weddingen of U-boat U9, bomber attack of a torpedo boat, and S.M. Panzerkreuzer "Seydlitz."

French Aces. 1913 Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-9-PC1 through 4AZ-2-9-PB36.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 9

Postcard Description

Eugene Jacques Bullard, Brocard, Coiffard, Chainat, Clerc, Deullin, Fonck, Garros, Guynemer, Hugues, Lenoir, Madon, Navarre, Nungesser, Slade, Tarascon, Vialet, de Burlel, Orta and Cicelet.

French Airplanes. 1913-1922 Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-10-PC1 through 4AZ-2-10-PB58.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 10

Postcard Description

Airplanes: Nieuport, Caudron C.23, Spad, Farman (Brothers) F.50 Bn.2 (Far.13 Bn.2), Deperdussin, Farman, Blériot XI-2., Voisin, Goupy 1909 Biplane (No.2), Tellier Monoplane (1910), Wright Bothers, Rougier, Antoinette 1910 Type, Esnault-Pelterie No. 2, Astra Type CM, Hanriot.

People: Montmain, Pégoud, Marius Lacrouze, Paulhan, Martinet, Maviet, Weymann, van den Born, Fischer, Morane, Latham, Métrot, Martinet, A. Bouvier, Hubert Latham, Gobé, Dubonnet, Vedrines, Alfred Leblanc, Moineau, Labouret.

German Airplanes. Undated Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-11-PC1 through 4AZ-2-11-PB10.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 11

Postcard Description

People and airplanes and flying boats, Albatros Taube (Dove) Biplane, 1912, Jeanson-Colliex flying boat, and Albatros flying boat.

U.S. Airplanes. Undated Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-12-PC1 through 4AZ-2-12-PC19.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 12

Postcard Description

Various models of U.S. Army airplanes, bombers, scouts, and flying boats.

Japanese Airplanes. Undated Postcard number 4AZ-2-13-PC1.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 13

Postcard Description

Kawasaki Army Type Otsu 1 (Kawasaki-Salmson 2 A2).

Early French Military Airplanes. Undated Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-14-PC1 through 4AZ-2-14-PC2.

British Airplanes. 1922 January 11 Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-15-PC1 through 4AZ-2-15-PC12.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 15

Postcard Description

Sopwith Dolphin (5.F.1), British Flying Boat, Sopwith Camel Family, and Avro 504 Family.

Italian Airplanes. Undated Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-16-PC1 through 4AZ-2-16-PC12.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 16

Postcard Description

Subseries 4. Album 4 and 5, Various Aviation Topics

Various Aviation Topics. 1911-1931 Postcard numbers 4AZ-2-17-PC1 through 4AZ-2-17-PC80.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 2 17

Postcard Description

Aviatik, Otto pusher, Rumpler Taube, Gotha bombers and flying boats, AGO C.I, LVG B.I, Fokker E Family Monoplane Fighters, Fokker D.V (M 22E), aerodromes, scenes of early aviation, military balloons, Zeppelins, and bombing of London, Zeppelin Z.1, Zeppelin Model 4, Zeppelin "Hansa," Zeppelin Z.5, and attacks on Zeppelin by night.

Series II. Photographs

Subseries 1. Album 1

Album Lt. Thomas circa 1917-1930 Image numbers 4AZ-3-1-PB1 to 4AZ-3-1-PB265.


Box Album
Graphic materials 3 1

Image Description

Members of the German Royal Family, Lt. Thomas, pilots, aircraft, military personnel and civilians.

Subseries 2. Album 2

Album Unidentified. 1919-1922 Image numbers 4AZ-4-1-PB1 through 4AZ-4-1-PB590.


Box Album
Graphic materials 4 1

Image Description

People, family life, Harley Davidson sidecar, airplanes, military personnel, scenes, farm life, and Crown Point Road Race Circuit.

Album Unidentified Photocopies. 1919-1922 Photocopies of album with photo ID numbers.

Note to the Researcher

Please use these photocopies for reference and ordering images.

Subseries 3. Loose Photographs

German Pilots. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-5-1-PB1 through 4AZ-5-1-PB57.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 1

Image Description

Various German aces and pilots, and aircraft.

Manfred von Richthofen. 1916 Image numbers 4AZ-5-2-PB1 through 4AZ-5-2-PB47.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 2

Image Description

Freiherr Manfred von Richthofen with his family, the Royal family, and with other pilots.

Manufacturers. Image numbers 4AZ-5-3-PB1 through 4AZ-5-3-PB62.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 3

Image Description

German from A.E.G. to Siemens aircraft.

Dirk [Mosgezler?] Photographs. 1985 Image numbers 4AZ-5-4-PC1 through 4AZ-5-4-PC16.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 4

Image Description

Depicting a private World War I memorabilia collection.

Roger Freeman's Vintage Aviation. 1997 July 6 Image numbers 4AZ-5-5-PC1 through 4AZ-5-5-PC85.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 5

Image Description

Depicting a private World War I memorabilia collection and vintage airplanes.

Imperial War Museum, Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-5-6-PB1 through 4AZ-5-6-PB64.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 6

Image Description

Heinz J. Nowarra and others, Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-5-7-PB1 through 4AZ-5-7-PB33.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 7

Image Description

German and Austro-Hungarian airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-5-8-PB1 through 4AZ-5-8-PB60.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 8

Image Description

German and Austro-Hungarian airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-5-9-PB1 through 4AZ-5-9-PB37.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 5 9

Image Description

British, French, and Italian airplanes.

French Pilots. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-1-PB1 through 4AZ-6-1-PB44.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 1

Image Description

French pilots with their airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-2-PB1 through 4AZ-6-2-PB14.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 2

Image Description

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-3-PB1 through 4AZ-6-3-PB13.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 3

Image Description

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-4-PB1 through 4AZ-6-4-PB11.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 4

Image Description

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-5-PB1 through 4AZ-6-5-PB6.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 5

Image Description

French Nieuport airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-6-PB1 through 4AZ-6-6-PB16.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 6

Image Description

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-7-PB1 through 4AZ-6-7-PC34.


Box Folder
Graphic materials 6 7

Image Description

German Albatros airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-8-PB1 through 4AZ-6-8-PB11.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-9-PB1 through 4AZ-6-9-PB5.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-10-PB1 through 4AZ-6-10-PB2.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-11-PB1 through 4AZ-6-11-PB13.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-12-PB1 through 4AZ-6-12-PB8.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-13-PB1 through 4AZ-6-13-PB44.


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British Pilots. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-6-14-PB1 through 4AZ-6-14-PB50.


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R.A.F. Squadrons, pilots and airplanes.

American Pilots. 1917 October Image numbers 4AZ-6-15-PB1 through 4AZ-6-15-PB74.


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United States Squadrons and Lafayette Esquadrille, pilots and their airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-1-PB1 through 4AZ-7-1-PB4.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-2-PB1 through 4AZ-7-2-PB2.


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German Friedrichshafen airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-3-PB1 through 4AZ-7-3-PB6.


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German Halberstadt airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-4-PB1 through 4AZ-7-4-PB6.


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German Hannover airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-5-PB1 through 4AZ-7-5-PB3.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-6-PB1 through 4AZ-7-6-PB5.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-7-PB1 through 4AZ-7-7-PB42.


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German LFG Roland airplanes.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-8-PB1 through 4AZ-7-8-PB8.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-9-PB1 through 4AZ-7-9-PB42.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-10-PB1 through 4AZ-7-10-PB11.


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Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-11-PB1 through 4AZ-7-11-PB14.


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German Siemens-Schuckert airplanes.

Pilots and People. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-12-PB1 through 4AZ-7-12-PB5.


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Belgian, German, Italian, and Russian pilots, and an elderly couple.

Manufacturers. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-13-PB1 through 4AZ-7-13-PB6.


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Pilots. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-14-PB1 through 4AZ-7-14-PB5.


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Unidentified German pilots.

Oshkosh. 1997 Image numbers 4AZ-7-15-PC1 through 4AZ-7-15-PC13.


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Various airplanes at the airshow.

Lone Star Flight Museum. 2001 April 29 Image numbers 4AZ-7-16-PC1 through 4AZ-7-16-PC10.


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Various airplanes at the museum.

Roger Freeman. 1997 June 7 Image numbers 4AZ-7-17-PC1 through 4AZ-7-17-PC16.


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Various stages of airplane restoration at the museum.

Museum. Undated Image numbers 4AZ-7-17-PC1 through 4AZ-7-18-PC10.


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Series III. Negatives

Films of France. 1918-1919 Negative numbers 4AZ-8-1-NB1 through 4AZ-8-1-NB111.


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Troop transport, French villages and people, warfare, camp life, and sight seeing.

Series IV. Topics

Correspondence and Documents. 1919-1998 Image numbers 4AZ-8-2-PC1 through 4AZ-8-2-PC7.


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Front pages of Aces magazine, two-hour pass from 1919, correspondence, and postcard booklet.

French Pilots, Part I. Undated Supplement printouts from "La Guerre Aérienne," no. 2 through no. 40.

French Pilots, Part II. Undated Supplement printouts from "La Guerre Aérienne," no. 41 through no. 94.

French Pilots, Part III. Undated Supplement printouts from "La Guerre Aérienne," no. 97 through no. 106, photo print, booklets Henri Farré: "Sky Fighters of France. A French Official Exhibition of Paintings of Battles in the Air," shown at The Anderson Galleries, New York, NY.


Contents

The Type VII was based on earlier German submarine designs going back to the World War I Type UB III and especially the cancelled Type UG, designed through the Dutch dummy company Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v.S) which was set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles, and was built by shipyards around the world. The Finnish Vetehinen class and Spanish Type E-1 also provided some of the basis for the Type VII design. These designs led to the Type VII along with Type I, the latter being built in AG Weser shipyard in Bremen, Germany. The production of Type I was cut down only after two boats the reasons for this are not certain and range from political decisions to faults of the type. The design of the Type I was further used in the development of the Type VII and Type IX. Type VII submarines were the most widely used U-boats of the war and were the most produced submarine class in history, with 703 built. [6] The type had several modifications.

The Type VII was the most numerous U-boat type to be involved in the Battle of the Atlantic.


Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV - History

The Phönix D.I was the second design developed by the Phönix Flugzeug-Werke based on Hansa-Brandenburg D.I design which it has produced under licence. The D.I was a single-seat biplane fighter with improvements over the original Hansa-Brandenburg design which included more efficient wings, a more powerful engine and structural improvements. A prototype was first flown in 1917 and proved to be fast but difficult to handle but because of the urgent need for fighters the D.I entered production. To improve the problems a modified variant, the D.II was introduced with balanced elevators and balanced ailerons on the upper wings. A further development was the D.III which had balanced ailerons on both wings and a more powerful Hiero 6 in-line engine. The last of 158 aircraft of all three types was delivered on 4 November 1918.

Ernst Heinkel chief designer of the Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke developed the KD in 1916 to meet the requirements of the Austro-Hungarian Air Force (Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen or K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen). It was a single seat, single engined biplane, of wooden construction, with plywood fuselage skinning and fabric wing skins. The wings featured an unusual "Star-Strutter" arrangement of interplane struts, where four Vee struts joined in the centre of the wing bay to result in a "star" arrangement. The interplane struts themselves were steel tubes.

The CL.II passed its Typenprüfung (type-test) on 7 May 1917, which resulted in production orders being placed. Halberstadt built 700 CL.IIs by the time production shifted to the improved CL.IV in mid-1918. A further 200 CL.II aircraft were built in 1918 by the Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke (BFW).

C.I(Ph) series 25: Production by Phönix Flugzeug-Werke AG, 72 ordered, but only 16 completed.

He finished pilot's training in Summer 1917, and was assigned to fly a Nieuport in C Flight, 40 Squadron. On 9 August 1917, he destroyed a German observation balloon over Arras for his first victory. The squadron re-equipped with new Royal Aircraft Factory SE.5as, and Harrison used his new craft for his second victory, when he destroyed a Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke reconnaissance plane on 18 January 1918. On 26 February, he drove down an Albatros D.V out of control. Mid-day and late afternoon wins on 6 March made him an ace. He would score five more times in March, ending the month as a double ace. After destroying another German plane on 1 April, he was promoted to Captain and transferred to 1 Squadron as a Flight Commander. He destroyed a Pfalz D.III on 11 April 1918, to round out his tally at a balloon and seven enemy airplanes destroyed, and four driven down out of control. He was then wounded, and left combat duty. His Military Cross was awarded in May 1918, with a Bar in lieu of a second award following.

The Henschel Hs 294 was a guided air-to-sea missile developed by Henschel Flugzeug-Werke AG in Germany during World War II, in 1943. It was a further development of the Henschel Hs 293, but was of an elongated, more streamlined shape. When launched from an aircraft, it was guided to its target with the same Kehl-Straßburg remote control system as both the Hs 293 and unpowered Fritz X armored precision-guided munition systems used for their MCLOS guidance needs. Just before it reached its target, it was guided into the water whereupon its wings would break off and then it then would run like a torpedo, propelled by its remaining kinetic energy it would explode below the waterline of the vessel. The proximity fuze was that of a regular German torpedo.

The Phönix D.I, with the D.II and D.III variants, was an Austro-Hungarian First World War biplane fighter built by the Phönix Flugzeug-Werke and based on the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I.

The Phönix C.I was the first original design developed by the Phönix Flugzeug-Werke It was based on the Hansa-Brandenburg C.II that Phönix was building under licence. A conventional biplane with a rear fuselage/tailplane similar to aircraft designed by Ernst Heinkel. The C.I had a fixed tail-skid landing gear and was powered by a 230 hp Hiero 6-cylinder inline piston engine, it had two tandem open cockpits for the pilot and observer/gunner. The company built 110 C.Is and then entered service with the KuKLFT in early 1918. After the First World War 30 aircraft were built by the Swedish Army engineering department fitted with 220 hp Benz Bz.IV inline engines.

(Junkers Flugzeug-Werke A.G.) * Junkers Ju 322 Mammut – Mammoth

Deutsche Flugzeug-Werke, usually known as DFW, was a German aircraft manufacturer of the early twentieth century. It was established by Bernhard Meyer and Erich Thiele at Lindenthal in 1910, and initially produced Farman designs under licence, later moving on to the Etrich Taube and eventually to its own designs. One of these, the DFW C.V reconnaissance aircraft, was produced to the extent of several thousand machines, including licence production by other firms. Plans to develop civil aircraft after the war proved fruitless, and the company was bought by ATG shortly thereafter.

*Ralph Grey, 4th Baron Grey of Werke (1661–1706)

Pilot und Flugzeug was founded by Heiko Teegen in 1980. The magazine is published by Pilot und Flugzeug Verlags GmbH on a monthly basis.

Pilot und Flugzeug (meaning Pilot and Aircraft in English) is a German language general aviation magazine published monthly in Germany.

Atlas Werke was a German shipbuilding company, located in Bremen. It was founded in 1911.

After the war, Atlas Werke also started to make echo sounders and other nautical instruments. In 1964 Krupp acquired a majority shareholding in Atlas Werke and the electronics division was spun off as the independent company Atlas Elektronik in Bremen-Sebaldsbrück. All shipbuilding was ceased in 1969.

Rakes include an 11.15 ft (3.40 m) TS 301 DS as the smallest alpine machine, and the TS 4000 which has a working width of 41.01 ft (12.50 m). There are several different patents and innovations here, one being the ‘jet effect’.

Under the leadership of Löffler, what is now known as Fella-Werke GmbH began as a harrow production company. It did not take long before Fella started acquiring other companies, however. In 1923, Fella acquired a loader wagon company and in 1924 they added the production of ploughs to their line. In 1931, Fella took over Epple & Buxmann in Augsburg. This was a crucial step in their harvesting technology. In that acquisition, Fella began their first production of mowers, tedders and rakes mainly for grain production.

After the war, the shipyards were acquired by Poland – to which the region was assigned by border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference. Postwar production included ships, railcars and boilers. The Schichau shipyard at Danzig was subsumed into the Lenin shipyard in 1950 and, in 1980, attracted worldwide media coverage as a result of protests led by the Solidarność trade union.


Operations

Siemens is incorporated in Germany and has its corporate headquarters in Munich. [81] It has operations in around 190 countries and approximately 285 production and manufacturing facilities. [81] Siemens had around 360,000 employees as of 30 September 2011. [81]

Electrification, automation and digitalization are the long-term growth fields of Siemens. In order to take full advantage of the market potential in these fields, Siemens businesses are bundled into nine divisions and healthcare as a separately managed business.

Wind Power and Renewables

Power Generation Services

Process Industries and Drives

Research and development

In 2011 Siemens invested a total of €3.925 billion in research and development, equivalent to 5.3% of revenues. [81] As of 30 September 2011 Siemens had approximately 11,800 Germany-based employees engaged in research and development and approximately 16,000 in the rest of the world, of whom the majority were based in one of Austria, China, Croatia, Denmark, France, India, Mexico, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. [81] As of 30 September 2011 Siemens held approximately 53,300 patents worldwide. [81]

Siemens' headquarters, Munich (front)

Siemens office building in Munich-Giesing

"Wernerwerk" (Werner's Factory) in Berlin-Siemensstadt

Wernerwerk II in Berlin-Siemensstadt

Wernerwerk XV in Berlin-Siemensstadt

Siemens office building in Erlangen

Siemens office building in Erlangen

Siemens site in Munich-Perlach

Siemens Gas Turbine Factory, formerly Ruston & Hornsby Pelham Works, Lincoln, England


Variants [ edit ]

Due to the lack of licence fees, 14 companies built a large number of variations of the initial design, making it difficult for historians to determine the exact manufacturer based on historical photographs. An incomplete list is shown below. The most common version was the Rumpler Taube with two seats.


F-16I Sufa Part 1

Modelers rejoice! Finally, a 2-seat F-16 in 1/32nd scale! Academy comes to the table with an F-16I Sufa. The Sufa (Storm) is the Israeli Air Forces advanced tactical aircraft based on the Block 52 F-16's. Visual differences between standard F-16's and the Sufa include the addition of avionics in an enhanced spine and conformal fuel tanks.

On to the kit. Many of the kits parts are shared with Academy's first release. I know some modelers had issues with the cockpit/coaming and nose on the first kit and Academy has listened and addressed those issues.

Inside the box, you get 18 sprues basically containing the entire first kit (minus the original fuselage) plus sprues for the CFT's and new nose, complete new tool fuselage plus brass AOA and pitot probes, and a sheet of photoetch to add even more detail. There are two options for the canopy- clear and tinted and are both excellent. There are also two huge decal sheets perfectly printed- one for the airframes and stencils and the second for more stencils and full markings for the weapons. There are decal sheets which have options for the following planes:


April 5, 2013

Bobrek sub-camp of Auschwitz III camp, where prisoners worked as slave laborers

This morning, I read an article about Gilbert Michlin, a French Jewish prisoner, who survived the Holocaust because he was selected to be a slave laborer at the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz (Auschwitz III).

Main gate into the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz

Prisoners working in the Bobrek factory

The photo above was taken in 1944 at the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz. It shows prisoners working in an airplane factory called Siemens Schuckert Werke. In the background, the man wearing a civilian suit is Herr Jungdorf, a German engineer for the Siemens company.

This quote is from the article about Gilbert Michlin, which you can read in full here:

In his memoir, Gilbert [Michlin] recalled French complicity in the deportation of Jews. He lovingly portrayed his father’s yearning to immigrate to America and his rejection at Ellis Island in 1923 [America had a quota on Jewish immigrants starting in 1921] Gilbert’s own childhood dream to be an actor and the shock of Nazi occupation and his arrest with his mother by French police at 2 a.m. on Feb. 3, 1944, two days before his 18th birthday.

A week later, Gilbert saw his mother for the last time as she was driven away from the Auschwitz platform in a truck.

It was at the [Auschwitz] death camp that a Siemens representative recruited Gilbert and about 100 others to a work unit. His father’s insistence that Gilbert learn a mechanical trade saved his life. Gilbert was selected for armaments production. Siemens kept its Bobrek factory prisoners together, even after the SS evacuated them in the death march from Auschwitz in January 1945. They were transferred together from Buchenwald to Berlin. A few months later, the war was over.

Note that, at the Auschwitz “death camp,” 18-year-old Gilbert Michlin was recruited by a Siemens representative for a work unit in the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz. This is the first time that I have ever heard of a Siemens rep recruiting workers at Auschwitz. I thought that everyone who was transported to Auschwitz was at the mercy of Dr. Josef Mengele who was always at the ramp when the trains arrived. Was there a Siemen’s representative standing there as well, doing some recruiting for the Siemens company?

Prisoners arriving at Auschwitz-Birkenau had to undergo selection, for work or the gas chamber

Monowitz was originally a sub-camp of the Auschwitz II (Birkenau) camp, and it was known as Bunalager (Buna Camp) until November 1943 when it became the Auschwitz III camp with its own administrative headquarters. Auschwitz III consisted of 28 sub-camps which were built between 1942 and 1944. This area of Upper Silesia was known as the “Black Triangle” because of its coal deposits. The Buna plant attracted the attention of the Allies, and there were several bombing raids on the factories.

Auschwitz III was established at the site of the chemical factories of IG Farbenindustrie near the small village of Monowitz, which was located four kilometers from the town of Auschwitz. The IG Farben company had independently selected this location around the same time that Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler decided, in April 1940, to locate a new concentration camp in the town of Auschwitz. The most important factory at Auschwitz III, aka Monowitz, was the Buna Werke, which was owned by the IG Farben company.

Of the three Nazi concentration camps located near the town of Auschwitz, the Auschwitz III camp was the most important to the Nazis because of its factories which were essential to the German war effort. The Monowitz industrial complex was built by Auschwitz inmates, beginning in April 1941. Initially, the workers walked from the Auschwitz main camp to the building site, a distance of seven kilometers.

The decision to build chemical factories at Auschwitz transformed the village of Monowitz. On February 2, 1941, Herman Göring ordered the Jews in the village to be relocated to a ghetto, and German civilians moved into their former homes.

When the factories at Monowitz were opened, the town of Auschwitz quickly went from a primitive town of 12,000 inhabitants to a modern German town of 40,000 people which included an influx of German engineers and their families. Both the main Auschwitz camp and the Birkenau camp were expanded in order to provide workers for the factories. Before Monowitz became a separate camp with barracks buildings, the prisoners had to walk from the other camps to the factories.

According to Wikipedia, the Bobrek sub-camp of Monowitz was built by Siemens predecessor Siemens-Schuckert near the Polish village of Bobrek. The prisoners who worked there were producing electrical parts for German aircraft and U-boats. On January 18, 1945, the prisoners from the Bobrek sub-camp were evacuated on a “death march” to the concentration camp in Gleiwitz, Poland, where they were put on a train to Buchenwald, from where they were transferred to a factory in a suburb of Berlin. The Commandant of the Bobrek camp was SS-Scharführer Hermann Buch.

Heinrich Himmler and Max Faust inspect the Monowitz camp

The photo above shows Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, a five-star general, (2nd from the left) who was the head of the SS and the man who was responsible for all the Nazi concentration camps. The man on the far left is Max Faust. This photo was taken when Himmler came to inspect the Monowitz factories on July 17th and 18th, 1942. Himmler is the man wearing a uniform. The two men on the right are German engineers.

The German engineers lived in the town of Auschwitz, after it was cleaned up to meet German standards of living. Slave labor was used to make improvements to the town, after Himmler volunteered the services of the concentration camp inmates.

The Jews who were sent to Auschwitz, and then assigned to work at Monowitz, had a much better chance of survival because the factory workers were considered too valuable to send to the gas chambers, at least while they were still able to work.
The figures below are from the Nazi records which were turned over to the Red Cross by the Soviet Union after the fall of Communism. They were published in a book written by Danuta Czech.

Male prisoners in Auschwitz III Monowitz (Buna-Werke) 10,223
Golleschau 1,008
Jawischowitz (Jawiszowice) 1,988
Eintrachthutte (Swietochlowice) 1,297
Neu-Dachs (Jaworzno) 3,664
Blechhammer (Blachownia) 3,958
Furstengrube (Wesola) 1,283
Gute Hoffnung (Janinagrube, Libiaz) 853
Guntergrube (Ledziny) 586
Brunn (Brno) 36
Gleiwitz I 1,336
Gleiwitz II 740
Gleiwitz III 609
Gleiwitz IV 444
Laurahutte (Siemianowice) 937
Sosnowitz 863
Bobrek 213
Trzebinia 641
Althammer (Stara Kuznia) 486
Tschechowitz-Dzieditz 561
Charlottengrube (Rydultowy) 833
Hindenburg (Zabrze) 70
Bismarckhutte (Hajduki) 192
Hubertushutte (Lagiewniki) 202
Subtotal 33,023

Female prisoners in Auschwitz III

Total for Auschwitz III: 35,118

Note that there were 213 survivors of the Bobrek sub-camp.


Air-to-surface tactical missiles

During the 1970s the development of air-to-surface missiles for tactical uses experimented a notable progress, above all regarding anti-ship, anti-radar and precision guidance systems. Here starts a chapter in which, as it happens with a good share of the history of missiles, the origins are found in revolutionary projects realized by German technicians and scientists during the two world wars.

It could be thought that fitting a functional guide system in an air-to-surface missile is a simple task. It could be said that since bombs fall simply by effect of gravity, they could be stabilized by incorporating fins on them and easily directed by appropriate movements of those fins. It is a logical conclusion, but the first developments of missiles of this category - which as in the case of other types were born in Germany - choose in their beginnings the configuration of an airplane. After the Second World War a wide range of these weapons was developed, which happened in part due to the complexity of the task of creating adequate guidance systems. This article describes only air-to-surface tactical missiles the strategical missiles of this category have a range greater than 160 kilometers and are often fitted with nuclear warheads, which in tactical missiles are rarely used. Before considering the problems posed by a guidance system, it is essential to decide which would be the purpose of the missile. With few exceptions, the first missiles of this type were developed to reach small targets that were beyond the possibilities of free-fall bombs. Among such targets, bridges had a prime position, but there were as well many others, including warships and merchant ships. A factor that largely contributed in the development of this then new weapon was the anti-aircraft defense. The well defended targets discouraged the utilization of bombers or even fighter-bombers, which tried techniques to reach the targets with a reasonable probability of surviving the defenses, such as dive attacks and runs at low altitude upon the target. In some cases there were air-to-surface missiles whose precision was lesser than the one of free-fall bombs, but they could be launched from much greater distances, decreasing or nullifying the danger posed for the launching aircraft by dense anti-aircraft defenses.

Without any doubt the most important program of missiles developed before the Second World War was the one directed by the company Siemens-Schuckert Werke (SSW) during the First World War, destined mainly for the German Imperial Navy. Doctor Wilhelm von Siemens suggested the creation of a remote-controlled glider bomb in such early date as 1914, two months after the start of the war. The company had already considerable experience with remote-controlled boats and the project advanced at good pace. Flight tests, directed by engineer Dorner, started in January 1915, with increasingly larger gliders. In every case control was effectuated by means of an electric control, using thin copper wires that were unrolled from a coil. The servoactuators used intitially as energy source a conventional battery, but since mid 1916 it was used a wind generator, which used a pinwheel that rotated when displacing at high speed on the air. The control of rudder and elevators was effectuated by transmission of binary commands, allowing only two extreme positions without any modulation between both, so rudder and ailerons remained in the last position that had been commanded from the two possible ones. After a good number of tests, it was conceived as well a method for having the fuselage opened in two sections when receiving the corresponding command, allowing so to drop a torpedo carried within.

The tests were carried from the factory Siemens in Neumunster, in the spring 1915. Night tests were effectuated from August 1916. After 75 flight tests with large biplane gliders, the Navy prepared an airship and so were started the flight tests with biplanes and monoplanes weighing 300 kilograms from the Zeppelin Z.XII in the surroundings of Hannover, in April 1917. Later were effectuated flights with gliders from airships L.35 in Juterbog and Parseval Pl.25 in Potsdam. The L.35 transported later numerous gliders of 500 kilograms and some ones of 1000 kilograms. The last flight corresponded to a glider torpedo SSW number 7, the 2nd August 1918. It flew 7.6 kilometers after being freed at an altitude of 1219 meters, but the double command wire got broken when the gliderwas already upon its target, about 60 meters above it. In the time of the Armistice - November 1918 -, SSW was starting more advanced tests in the airbase Nordholz, using low-profile monoplanes, with a wingspan between 4.17 and 5 meters. It was also expected to launch these pioneers of the modern air-to-surface missiles from bomber aircraft built by SSW as well. Among these, the R.IV showed itself as unsuitable, but the R.VIII - the largest bomber of the First World War - could perfectly carry these monoplane gliders. Launching tests had not been started when the Allies forced to discontinue the works in December 1918.

Deficiencies of the first missiles

From 1943, Germany used systematically several models of air-to-surface missiles, in quantity of several hundreds, which in turn stimulated the development, in United States, of "glider bombs", "vertical bombs" and other contraptions, most of which suffered from basic deficiencies. In the last 18 months of the Second World War, the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) deployed missiles of this type in England, Italy and Burma, but they were seen with mistrust and many were never used. After the war, the first truly effective use of air-to-surface missiles took place in Korea, when the powerful guided bomb Tarzon was launched from bombers B-29 over bridges, dams and similar targets, in the border with China. The subsequent systems that entered service were the Bullpup of the United States Navy (USN) and a growing family of French weapons, developed by a company successively denominated SFECMAS, Nord and Aerospatiale. As almost all of the air-to-surface missiles of this time, they had to be telecommanded by an operator to keep them aligned with the target until the impact. From the 1950s many of these missiles were developed and still they had obvious deficiencies. The most serious one was that, despite precision could be improved in respect of free-fall bombs, the exposition of the launching aircraft to the anti-aircraft defense was not only not reduced, but it could even be increased, since the aircraft was forced to go after the missile to guide it. Which actually was required - and this had been already specified in a report from the Luftwaffe, from 1943, and another one from the USAAF, from January 1944 - was a missile of the so called "fire and forget", fitted with an autonomous guidance system that would not require any external support once the missile were launched. After the launching, the carrier aircraft could dedicate itself to perform the pertinent evasive maneuvers to escape anti-aircraft fire instead of attending the trajectory of the missile.

Scheme of the Fritz X missile, showing the armored piercing ogive such strong ogive was intended to perforate the thick armor of a battleship. The 9th September 1943, two of these bombs launched from bombers Dornier Do 217, sank the battleship Rome and severely damaged her twin Italia.

Seeking the perfect guidance system

One of the most important objectives of the air-to-surface missiles is the neutralization of ships, and multiple were the guidance systems used for this purpose. The most simple one was based in the visual and identificative ability of the operator directing the missile, who guided the artifact looking at it and to the target with bare eyes and modifying the course by means of a pertinent signal link, such as radio emissions or wires. Later, it was installed in the nose of the missile an electro-optical or television-based seeker. Once in the vicinity of the target, the seeker was locked onto it. Then the missile would be launched and it would head towards the position that had been previously set. This system was useful for a direct attack, most suitable against a static target. For an indirect attack, useful against a moving target, the missile was launched and directed to the area of the target by the operator, who used a television screen to see the image sent by the camera installed in the nose of the missile. By means of the pertinent command link, the missile would be maneuvered until being locked onto the target when this one was nearby enough. But this method could pose a problem. Both the emission of television signals from the missile and the radio signal transmitted from the aircraft to guide the missile could be interfered by the enemy by means of electronic countermeasures. In this regard, a connection by cable was much safer, but this method is only possible for slow and short-range missiles. As far as possible, the best approach to design a guidance system would be to exploit a source of radiation emitted by the target itself. Either radar signals or thermal emissions were used to create new guidance systems that would automatically direct the missile towards such emission sources, from a distance of several kilometers.

The enemy could employ diverse resources against such systems: extensive use of electronic countermeasures, infrared countermeasures - either passive ones, like thermal covers, or active ones, like lure flares -, deactivation of the source of emissions or any other mean able to unlock the guidance system. Disconnecting the radars was the simplest way to fool anti-radar missiles, and with this method the North Vietnamese successfully counteracted the anti-radar missile Shrike during the Vietnam War. But soon the more modern air-to-surface missiles were fitted with a memory bank that allowed them to fulfill their trajectory regardless of the source of emission being disconnected. Still, the target could use active countermeasures to confuse the missile directing it towards a different target. Hence, the ideal would be to exploit a radiation source that could not be distorted by the enemy. The subsequent answer to this question was the laser: vanguard troops could be equipped with laser designators, with which they would "illuminate" the targets with a continuous and invisible ray. Then the missile fitted with a laser seeker would be able to automatically reach and hit the target. Albeit many of the laser systems operated in very exact wavelengths, they were developed as well modulated systems, allowing to hit certain targets exlusively with certain missiles.

Basically, there are three main groups of guidance systems, which use either long waves (infrared systems), medium waves (radar systems) or short waves (laser systems) of electromagnetic radiation. Probably the simplest system was the one developed by Texas Instruments for the "smart bombs" Paveway, introduced during the Vietnam War. These were conventional free-fall bombs which had incorporated in their ogive a guidance unit, fitted with four fins that were operated by means of a command system controlled by external signals sent from four low-sensitivity silicon detectors, disposed in a quadrant mounted in a separated conical sensor, which was orientable in respect of the tip of the guidance unit by means of an universal joint. When the bomb was launched, the sensor aligned itself with the course of the wind, hence being always aligned with the direction that the bomb followed. When the sensor detected the target it started to send signals to the control fins, balancing the data from the four detectors and keeping the sensor pointed directly towards the target that reflects the laser radiation, so the bomb was automatically directed towards the same point.

The laser allows for launchings of great precision. If the target is "illuminated" by first line troops or remote-controlled aircraft, the target can be hit even if there are clouds, smoke or bad weather in general. An alternative that can be used is that an aircraft carries the laser designator and another one the missiles, albeit this method could double the number of targets within enemy range, with the added inconvenience that the destruction of one of them would nullify the attack capacity of both. The last factor that conditioned the development of air-to-surface tactical missiles was the magnification of the human capability to see clearly any combat situation. Albeit both optical and radar-based methods have been exploited to the end, the greater progress in this field s constituted by the infrared rays, which offer thermal images of the heat sources, usually persons and vehicle engines. The most modern attack aircraft - including helicopters - were fitted with infrared sensors to be able to "see" regardless of camouflage, smoke, rain, snow or the darkness of the night. This was an area where the Soviet Union soon achieved a considerable capability, albeit the characteristics of their missiles were largely unknown by the western experts during the Cold War. Infrared-based systems, as the reader can imagine, were also particularly effective for anti-tank missiles, which shall be presented in another batch of articles. During the 1980s, air-to-surface missiles became a weapon of generalized utilization, of which the most important armies possess a large diversity of models, regarding the different tactical possibilities.

Mark 84 bomb enhanced with HOBOS (Homing Bomb System), a system introduced in 1969. The ogive of the bomb can be seen behind the electro-optical system. This was the first version of the HOBOS, composed of a general-purpose 907-kilogram bomb, a guidance section incorporated in the fore part, a control section incorporated in the rear part and an interconnection ensemble to link all the components.

A very extended employment, particularly after the War of the Falklands, is the one of anti-ship missiles launched from aircraft. Generally, these missiles were initially conceived for surface-to- surface employment, such as the American Harpoon or the French Exocet, and then adequated for air-to-surface employment. Another range of missiles is the one destined to the destruction of puntual targets, those that, such as bridges, command facilities, certain industrial complexes or centers of energy production, require weapons capable of hitting with great precision. Guidance systems such as television cameras allowed to achieve a great precision without exposing the launching aircraft within the range of enemy anti-aircraft defense. Anti-radar missiles were apparently less widespread, but in the event of a conflict it is probable that their usage would become very broad, since they would allow something so important as to disorganize the defense and even the surveillance of the enemy anti-aircraft systems, by the systematic destruction of the radar stations. The last trends - as in the other type of missiles - sought for the effectiveness of the simultaneous launching of several missiles. Instead of having an aircraft limited to attend only the guidance system of a sole missile, having to wait until this one hits its target to effectuate a second launching, more modern avionics granted aircraft the capability of launching several missiles towards the target, using the laser guidance only in the last seconds before the impact.


Controversies

2007 price fixing fine

In January 2007 Siemens was fined €396 million by the European Commission for price fixing in EU electricity markets through a cartel involving 11 companies, among which ABB, Alstom, Fuji, Hitachi Japan, AE Power Systems, Mitsubishi Electric Corp, Schneider, Areva, Toshiba and VA Tech [ 65 ] According to the Commission, "between 1988 and 2004, the companies rigged bids for procurement contracts, fixed prices, allocated projects to each other, shared markets and exchanged commercially important and confidential information." [ 65 ] Siemens was given the highest fine of €396 million, more than half of the total, for its alleged leadership role in the incident.

Bribery case

Siemens agreed to pay a record $1.34 billion in fines in December 2008 [ 66 ] after being investigated for serious bribery. The investigation found questionable payments of roughly €1.3 billion, from 2002 to 2006 that triggered a broad range of inquiries in Germany, the United States and many other countries. [ 67 ]

In May 2007 a German court convicted two former executives of paying about €6 million in bribes from 1999 to 2002 to help Siemens win natural gas turbine supply contracts with Enel, an Italian energy company. The contracts were valued at about €450 million. Siemens was fined €38 million. [ 68 ]

Iran telecoms controversy

Nokia Siemens supplied telecommunications equipment to the Iranian telecom company that included the ability to intercept and monitor telecommunications, a facility known as "lawful intercept". The equipment was believed to have been used in the suppression of the 2009–2010 Iranian election protests, leading to criticism of the company, including by the European Parliament. Nokia-Siemens later divested its call monitoring business, and reduced its activities in Iran. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] [ 72 ] [ 73 ] [ 74 ]

Greek bribes, greek metro and traffic lights controversy

In 2008, it was revealed that Siemens had bribed the two main political parties of Greece for approximately 10 years to be the sole provider of mechanical and electrical equipment of the Greek state. After the apocalypsis the German authorities arrested the Siemens representatives of Greeks, who escaped from Greek authorities. German justice didn't allow the Greek justice to cross-question the representatives. As a result, typically there isn't any evidence against the corrupt politicians, they haven't been arrested and continue to be in the Greek political system. Meanwhile, the Greek state cancelled the planned trades. Since all the parts of mechanical equipment were provided by Siemens, the equipement eventually breaks down, like traffic lights, and the projects are abandoned like the metro expansion. [ 75 ] [ 76 ] [ 77 ] [ awkward ]


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