Day 246 September 21 2011 - History

Day 246 September 21 2011 - History

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT addresses the United Nations General Assembly - THE FIRST LADY also attends

United Nations Building


11:00AM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel

United Nations Building


12:25PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda of Japan

United Nations Building


1:00PM THE PRESIDENT meets with Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser, President of the United Nations General Assembly

United Nations Building

1:05PM THE PRESIDENT meets with United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon

United Nations Building


1:20PM THE PRESIDENT attends a luncheon hosted by United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon

United Nations Building

2:45PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks at the Clinton Global Initiative

Sheraton New York Hotel and Towers

Open Press

3:45PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with Prime Minister David Cameron of the United Kingdom

Waldorf Astoria Hotel

4:45PM THE PRESIDENT holds a bilateral meeting with President Nicolas Sarkozy of the French Republic

Waldorf Astoria Hotel

5:35PM THE PRESIDENT meets with President Salva Kiir Mayardit of South Sudan

Waldorf Astoria Hotel

5:55PM THE PRESIDENT meets with President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Authority

Waldorf Astoria Hotel

7:05PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY attend the United Nations General Assembly Reception

New York Public Library

9:45PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY depart New York en route Andrews Air Force Base

John F. Kennedy International Airport

10:40PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY arrive at Andrews Air Force Base   10:55PM THE PRESIDENT and THE FIRST LADY arrive at the White House South Lawn


Day 246 September 21 2011 - History

1893 – Agnes nee Schmalz Ernst. My grandmother. Born in rural McLeod County, Minnesota, Grandma lived on a farm most of her life. In 1913 she married my grandfather, William Ernst, and they farmed near Buffalo, Minnesota where she had two babies, Helen and my mother, Lois. Mom was just a few months old when they sold that farm and bought a different one just outside Lester Prairie, Minnesota. The distance was less than forty miles but with a team of horses pulling a wagon containing all their belongings the trip took a full day. Grandma nursed my mother along the way. They lived in a house that was part log cabin and without electricity or running water. Grandma had three more babies, all boys, Harold, William, nicknamed Johnny, and Alvin, nicknamed Fritz. A new house was built with modern conveniences in the 1930s and a new barn was added also. But in 1938, Harold, while working for the Green Giant canning company was involved in a car accident and killed by a drunk driver. My mother drove her to the hospital at Glencoe and said Grandma prayed all the way there. They met a doctor upon arriving and he just shook his head. Harold was a month short of his 21st birthday when he died. Mom said a low moan came from deep within Grandma. To deal with her grief, after a day’s work, she sat up night after night writing a poem, a long seventeen page poem to her son.

In 1944 my grandfather Willian, died of a stroke at age 55. By this time Helen and Johnny were gone from the farm, raising their own families. Alvin, at fifteen, and Grandma were left to run the farm. My father had been drafted and was in the Army so Mom and I, a six month old baby, had moved back to the farm. Help came in the form of Helmuth, a partially crippled but still strong man who appeared and offered to work for room and board. With his aid and Fritz being forced to grow up fast the farm survived.

1949 – Mary nee Jenneke Riggan. My sister. Mary and Grandma shared a birthday. We lived in Glenwood, a small town in western Minnesota, at the time of her birth. I remember the excitement, and to me at age five, the confusion at the sudden addition to our family. As a shy kid however, I didn’t mind having the attention drawn away from me. Before she was a year old Mary became seriously ill with pneumonia and spent weeks in a hospital. Dad worked and Mom was at the hospital every day so I was sent to stay on the farm.

It was during this period I became close to my grandmother. She was a calm, quiet, devout woman who moved at a slow, measured pace but always with a purpose. Her days were filled with work from early morning to night. Up at dawn she’d cook breakfast on a wood burning stove while the men milked the cows. After breakfast she’d go to the milk house where she scrubbed down all the milking equipment. Then she gathered eggs and tended to the chickens. She’d put out feed for the ducks and geese and made sure there were table scraps for the dog and cats. In the summer she had a massive garden that I helped tend. There were apple trees and a plum tree and bee hives to produce honey. Food was canned, even meat, to be eaten during the winter. The kitchen would often be filled with the wonderful smell of baking break. As a child I never had to wonder where food came from. In the winter she sewed and was an excellent seamstress. But the earlier tragedies of losing a son and husband never left her. Grandma had also lost a sister, Louise, in the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic. She’d smile, serenely, but I never saw her laugh. Humor was not part of her life as far as I could tell. I had my moments as a kid when I was good at making people laugh. I knew not to even try with Grandma. I have an old faded black and white picture of her from when she was a young woman. Her and my grandfather were on a picnic, sitting on a blanket with their children surrounding them. With a baby on her lap Grandma is holding out a glass and Grandpa is pouring from a bottle. More than likely a bottle of dandelion wine, they made their own wine. She is laughing as she holds out the glass. It is the only picture, the only instance, I know of her laughing.

My sister was a little chatterbox as a child and to this day she is a non-stop talker. We moved from Glenwood to Lester when I was eight and Mary three years old. For the first year we lived in two rooms behind a barber shop. One room acted as the living room, kitchen, and mom and dad’s bedroom. The other room was a bedroom for Mary and I. There was one bed, a double bed, that we shared. Perhaps not proper but what necessity demanded. I do know that a year later, in a house with my own bedroom, I was quite happy. However for that year every night, after our prayers, Mary would start talking. I’d say nothing in return. Finally she’d say, “Gary, are you asleep?” I’d reply, “Yes.” Then she’d say, “Okay, then I am too.” Several years later, one summer, it was decided to send kids to a neighboring town to take swimming lessons at the pool there. Remember, this was the 1950s so the program was for boys only. This wasn’t oversight or intent, just the way things were. Twice a week a school bus would take us to Glencoe for the lessons. A couple of dozens boys signed up, including myself. And one girl. My sister Mary decided she had the right to go also, and my parents to their credit, agreed. I however was mortified. A busload of boys and one girl, and I of course was expected to look out for my little sister. There was teasing, mean things said, but she didn’t seem to notice as she sat proudly on the bus seat next to me. A part of me was also proud, I admired my sister for what she was doing. The commentary stopped once she started swimming circles around anybody else in the pool. In high school she went on to become a certified lifeguard.

Mary and Grandma were close also. Mary’s middle name is Louise, after Grandma’s departed sister. Religion played a big part in both of their lives and Mary would go to the farm and they’d discuss the bible. After high school Mary got married, moved to Colorado and raised a family of three sons. Grandma lived a quiet, dignified life filled with worthy, hard-working routine and passed away on November 19th, 1975. I was a pallbearer at her funeral. Mary now lives in southern Missouri with her husband Ben. Talking is still a way of life for her.

Brother and sister nearly fifty years after those swimming lessons.

As I wrote these words it was with some shock I noted the date of Grandma’s death. Another person very dear to me, Kim, passed away unexpectedly in 2015. On November 19th, exactly forty years after Grandma. I don’t know what that says, just some kind of synchronistic connection between two women who were of significant importance to me.


Heritage Open Day wows visitors with 246 years of history

The Sheffield Assay Office was delighted to see such interest from the public for Heritage Open Day 2019. 25 people booked to visit the premises on Friday 13 th September to hear about the historical practice of testing and hallmarking precious metals in Sheffield.

The visitors, many of whom were local, took the opportunity to see the wonderful facilities on their door step and all thoroughly enjoyed an illustrated talk and a tour of the premises here in Hillsborough, commenting

&ldquoWhat a great history our city has, it was interesting to see the previous buildings the Assay Office had occupied since 1773 and to hear about women silversmiths&rdquo

&ldquoVery interesting and educational, thank you to all the staff at the Sheffield Assay Office for opening the doors for Heritage Open Day 2019&rdquo

The Sheffield Assay Office was established in 1773, under an Act of Parliament and today the company assays and hallmarks the precious metals - silver, gold, platinum and palladium. Sheffield Assay Office is one of only four UK assay offices who all work to uphold the Hallmarking Act of 1973 and continue to ensure consumer protection for customers purchasing precious metals.


The International Day of Peace ("Peace Day") is observed around the world each year on 21 September. Established in 1981 by unanimous United Nations resolution, Peace Day provides a globally shared date for all humanity to commit to Peace above all differences and to contribute to building a Culture of Peace.

This is a long established universal website which serves all involved in Peace Day, beginning annually with the 100-day Countdown.

This year is particularly significant: It is the 20th Anniversary of the UN Resolution on the Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace. A/RES/53/243 B

Let us all create Peace Day everyday!

UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, delivers his 100-day countdown to the International Day of Peace message. https://www.un.org/en/events/peaceday/100days.shtml

2021 Peace Day Theme:
Recovering Better for an Equitable and Sustainable World

We invite you to join the efforts of the United Nations family as we focus on recovering better for a more equitable and peaceful world.

From education to the arts, social justice to sports, health to the environment, neighborhood issues to service for others, there are many ways to participate in Peace Day! We invite you to create a public or private activity related to peace, spread the word about Peace Day and/or attend an event in your community. LEARN MORE


Day 246 September 21 2011 - History

Administrative Professional's Day: April 21, 2021 April 27, 2022 April 26, 2023 April 24, 2024 April 23, 2025

Administrative Professional's Week : The last full week in April - April 18-24, 2021 April 24-30, 2022 April 22-28, 2023 April 21-27, 2024 April 20-26, 2025

National Professional Secretaries Week and National Secretary's Day was created in 1952 through the work of Harry F. Klemfuss of Young and Rubicam. Klemfuss recognized the importance and value of the secretarial position, to a company or business and to management. His goal in creating this day, was to encourage more women to become secretaries. (Nowadays, that would be both women and men). Using his skill and experience in public relations, Klemfuss, promoted the values and importance of the job that secretaries do. In doing so, he also created the holiday in recognition of the importance of secretaries.

The name of this special day has changed and evolved over the past few decades. Yet, the importance of recognizing these vital individuals has continued to grow. The two new terms in use today are: "Administrative Professionals" and "Executive Administrators (or Admins)". The two names sometimes mean different roles and responsibilities in different companies and organizations. Both are broader terms, that encompass more positions than the original "Secretary" role.

The name change recognizes and acknowledges that the role has changed significantly since 1952, and for the better at that. We think Klemfuss would agree with the evolution of Secretary's Day. In Harry Klemfuss' day, these positions were the realm of women. Today, you find males in these positions, too.

  • Flowers
  • Cards, often with restaurant or shopping gift certificates
  • Take them to lunch
  • Candies
  • Assorted Gift Baskets

Thought for Today: It takes one minute to change your attitude, and in that one minute you can change your whole day.

Ecards We've got you covered with free daily Ecards for just about any calendar holiday, occasion, event or no event at all!

What happened on this Day? This Day in History

Recipe of the Day: Asparagus Wrapped Bacon

Flower of the Day: Daffodils

Holiday Insights , where everyday is a holiday, a bizarre day, a wacky day, observance, or a special event. Join us in the calendar fun each and every day of the year.

Did You Know? There are literally thousands of daily holidays, special events and observances, more than one for every day of the year. Many new holidays are being created on a regular basis. At Holiday Insights, we strive to thoroughly research and report details of each one as completely and accurately as possible.


California Code, Labor Code - LAB § 246

(a)(1) An employee who, on or after July 1, 2015, works in California for the same employer for 30 or more days within a year from the commencement of employment is entitled to paid sick days as specified in this section.

(2) On and after July 1, 2018, a provider of in-home supportive services under Section 14132.95, 14132.952, or 14132.956 of, or Article 7 (commencing with Section 12300) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 9 of, the Welfare and Institutions Code , who works in California for 30 or more days within a year from the commencement of employment is entitled to paid sick days as specified in subdivision (e) and subject to the rate of accrual in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b).

(b)(1) An employee shall accrue paid sick days at the rate of not less than one hour per every 30 hours worked, beginning at the commencement of employment or the operative date of this article, whichever is later, subject to the use and accrual limitations set forth in this section.

(2) An employee who is exempt from overtime requirements as an administrative, executive, or professional employee under a wage order of the Industrial Welfare Commission is deemed to work 40 hours per workweek for the purposes of this section, unless the employee's normal workweek is less than 40 hours, in which case the employee shall accrue paid sick days based upon that normal workweek.

(3) An employer may use a different accrual method, other than providing one hour per every 30 hours worked, provided that the accrual is on a regular basis so that an employee has no less than 24 hours of accrued sick leave or paid time off by the 120th calendar day of employment or each calendar year, or in each 12-month period.

(4) An employer may satisfy the accrual requirements of this section by providing not less than 24 hours or three days of paid sick leave that is available to the employee to use by the completion of his or her 120th calendar day of employment.

(c) An employee shall be entitled to use accrued paid sick days beginning on the 90th day of employment, after which day the employee may use paid sick days as they are accrued.

(d) Accrued paid sick days shall carry over to the following year of employment. However, an employer may limit an employee's use of accrued paid sick days to 24 hours or three days in each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period. This section shall be satisfied and no accrual or carryover is required if the full amount of leave is received at the beginning of each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period. The term “ full amount of leave ” means three days or 24 hours.

(e) For a provider of in-home supportive services under Section 14132.95, 14132.952, or 14132.956 of, or Article 7 (commencing with Section 12300) of Chapter 3 of Part 3 of Division 9 of, the Welfare and Institutions Code , the term “ full amount of leave ” is defined as follows:

(1) Eight hours or one day in each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period beginning July 1, 2018.

(2) Sixteen hours or two days in each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period beginning when the minimum wage, as set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 1182.12 and accounting for any years postponed under subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (d) of Section 1182.12 , has reached thirteen dollars ($13) per hour.

(3) Twenty-four hours or three days in each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period beginning when the minimum wage, as set forth in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 1182.12 and accounting for any years postponed under subparagraph (D) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (d) of Section 1182.12 , has reached fifteen dollars ($15) per hour.

(f) An employer is not required to provide additional paid sick days pursuant to this section if the employer has a paid leave policy or paid time off policy, the employer makes available an amount of leave applicable to employees that may be used for the same purposes and under the same conditions as specified in this section, and the policy satisfies one of the following:

(1) Satisfies the accrual, carryover, and use requirements of this section.

(2) Provided paid sick leave or paid time off to a class of employees before January 1, 2015, pursuant to a sick leave policy or paid time off policy that used an accrual method different than providing one hour per 30 hours worked, provided that the accrual is on a regular basis so that an employee, including an employee hired into that class after January 1, 2015, has no less than one day or eight hours of accrued sick leave or paid time off within three months of employment of each calendar year, or each 12-month period, and the employee was eligible to earn at least three days or 24 hours of sick leave or paid time off within nine months of employment. If an employer modifies the accrual method used in the policy it had in place prior to January 1, 2015, the employer shall comply with any accrual method set forth in subdivision (b) or provide the full amount of leave at the beginning of each year of employment, calendar year, or 12-month period. This section does not prohibit the employer from increasing the accrual amount or rate for a class of employees covered by this subdivision.

(3) Notwithstanding any other law, sick leave benefits provided pursuant to the provisions of Sections 19859 to 19868.3, inclusive, of the Government Code , or annual leave benefits provided pursuant to the provisions of Sections 19858.3 to 19858.7, inclusive, of the Government Code , or by provisions of a memorandum of understanding reached pursuant to Section 3517.5 that incorporate or supersede provisions of Section 19859 to 19868.3 , inclusive, or Sections 19858.3 to 19858.7, inclusive of the Government Code , meet the requirements of this section.

(g)(1) Except as specified in paragraph (2), an employer is not required to provide compensation to an employee for accrued, unused paid sick days upon termination, resignation, retirement, or other separation from employment.

(2) If an employee separates from an employer and is rehired by the employer within one year from the date of separation, previously accrued and unused paid sick days shall be reinstated. The employee shall be entitled to use those previously accrued and unused paid sick days and to accrue additional paid sick days upon rehiring, subject to the use and accrual limitations set forth in this section. An employer is not required to reinstate accrued paid time off to an employee that was paid out at the time of termination, resignation, or separation of employment.

(h) An employer may lend paid sick days to an employee in advance of accrual, at the employer's discretion and with proper documentation.

(i) An employer shall provide an employee with written notice that sets forth the amount of paid sick leave available, or paid time off leave an employer provides in lieu of sick leave, for use on either the employee's itemized wage statement described in Section 226 or in a separate writing provided on the designated pay date with the employee's payment of wages. If an employer provides unlimited paid sick leave or unlimited paid time off to an employee, the employer may satisfy this section by indicating on the notice or the employee's itemized wage statement “unlimited.” The penalties described in this article for a violation of this subdivision shall be in lieu of the penalties for a violation of Section 226 . This subdivision shall apply to employers covered by Wage Order 11 or 12 of the Industrial Welfare Commission only on and after January 21, 2016.

(j) An employer has no obligation under this section to allow an employee's total accrual of paid sick leave to exceed 48 hours or 6 days, provided that an employee's rights to accrue and use paid sick leave are not limited other than as allowed under this section.

(k) An employee may determine how much paid sick leave he or she needs to use, provided that an employer may set a reasonable minimum increment, not to exceed two hours, for the use of paid sick leave.

(l) For the purposes of this section, an employer shall calculate paid sick leave using any of the following calculations:

(1) Paid sick time for nonexempt employees shall be calculated in the same manner as the regular rate of pay for the workweek in which the employee uses paid sick time, whether or not the employee actually works overtime in that workweek.

(2) Paid sick time for nonexempt employees shall be calculated by dividing the employee's total wages, not including overtime premium pay, by the employee's total hours worked in the full pay periods of the prior 90 days of employment.

(3) Paid sick time for exempt employees shall be calculated in the same manner as the employer calculates wages for other forms of paid leave time.

(m) If the need for paid sick leave is foreseeable, the employee shall provide reasonable advance notification. If the need for paid sick leave is unforeseeable, the employee shall provide notice of the need for the leave as soon as practicable.

(n) An employer shall provide payment for sick leave taken by an employee no later than the payday for the next regular payroll period after the sick leave was taken.

(o) The State Department of Social Services, in consultation with stakeholders, shall convene a workgroup to implement paid sick leave for in-home supportive services providers as specified in this section. This workgroup shall finish its implementation work by November 1, 2017, and the State Department of Social Services shall issue guidance such as an all-county letter or similar instructions by December 1, 2017.

(p) No later than February 1, 2019, the State Department of Social Services, in consultation with the Department of Finance and stakeholders, shall reconvene the paid sick leave workgroup for in-home supportive services providers. The workgroup shall discuss how paid sick leave affects the provision of in-home supportive services. The workgroup shall consider the potential need for a process to cover an in-home supportive services recipient's authorized hours when a provider needs to utilize his or her sick time. This workgroup shall finish its work by November 1, 2019.

(q) Notwithstanding the rulemaking provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 11340) of Part 1 of Division 3 of Title 2 of the Government Code ), the State Department of Social Services may implement, interpret, or make specific this section by means of an all-county letter, or similar instructions, without taking any regulatory action.

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Four myths about slavery

Myth One: The majority of African captives came to what became the United States.

Truth: Only 380,000 or 4-6% came to the United States. The majority of enslaved Africans went to Brazil, followed by the Caribbean. A significant number of enslaved Africans arrived in the American colonies by way of the Caribbean where they were “seasoned” and mentored into slave life. They spent months or years recovering from the harsh realities of the Middle Passage. Once they were forcibly accustomed to slave labor, many were then brought to plantations on American soil.

Myth Two: Slavery lasted for 400 years.

Popular culture is rich with references to 400 years of oppression. There seems to be confusion between the Transatlantic Slave Trade (1440-1888) and the institution of slavery, confusion only reinforced by the Bible, Genesis 15:13:

Then the Lord said to him, ‘Know for certain that for four hundred years your descendants will be strangers in a country not their own and that they will be enslaved and mistreated there.’

Listen to Lupe Fiasco - just one Hip Hop artist to refer to the 400 years - in his 2011 imagining of America without slavery, “All Black Everything”:

[Hook] You would never know If you could ever be If you never try You would never see Stayed in Africa We ain’t never leave So there were no slaves in our history Were no slave ships, were no misery, call me crazy, or isn’t he See I fell asleep and I had a dream, it was all black everything

[Verse 1] Uh, and we ain’t get exploited White man ain’t feared so he did not destroy it We ain’t work for free, see they had to employ it Built it up together so we equally appointed First 400 years, see we actually enjoyed it

Truth: Slavery was not unique to the United States it is a part of almost every nation’s history from Greek and Roman civilizations to contemporary forms of human trafficking. The American part of the story lasted fewer than 400 years.

How do we calculate it? Most historians use 1619 as a starting point: 20 Africans referred to as “servants” arrived in Jamestown, VA on a Dutch ship. It’s important to note, however, that they were not the first Africans on American soil. Africans first arrived in America in the late 16th century not as slaves but as explorers together with Spanish and Portuguese explorers. One of the best known of these African “conquistadors” was Estevancio who traveled throughout the southeast from present day Florida to Texas. As far as the institution of chattel slavery - the treatment of slaves as property - in the United States, if we use 1619 as the beginning and the 1865 Thirteenth Amendment as its end then it lasted 246 years, not 400.

Myth Three: All Southerners owned slaves.

Truth: Roughly 25% of all southerners owned slaves. The fact that one quarter of the Southern population were slaveholders is still shocking to many. This truth brings historical insight to modern conversations about the Occupy Movement, its challenge to the inequality gap and its slogan “we are the 99%.”

Take the case of Texas. When it established statehood, the Lone Star State had a shorter period of Anglo-American chattel slavery than other Southern states – only 1845 to 1865 – because Spain and Mexico had occupied the region for almost one half of the 19th century with policies that either abolished or limited slavery. Still, the number of people impacted by wealth and income inequality is staggering. By 1860, the Texas enslaved population was 182,566, but slaveholders represented 27% of the population, controlled 68% of the government positions and 73% of the wealth. Shocking figures but today’s income gap in Texas is arguably more stark with 10% of tax filers taking home 50% of the income.

Myth Four: Slavery was a long time ago.

Truth: African-Americans have been free in this country for less time than they were enslaved. Do the math: Blacks have been free for 149 years which means that most Americans are two to three generations removed from slavery. However, former slaveholding families have built their legacies on the institution and generated wealth that African-Americans have not been privy to because enslaved labor was forced segregation maintained wealth disparities and overt and covert discrimination limited African-American recovery efforts.


आज का इतिहास: आज के दिन को मुरादाबाद कभी नहीं भूलता जब ओलों ने लील ली थी 246 जिंदगी

नई दिल्ली. 20 अप्रैल दुनिया के दुनिया के इतिहास में बहुत ही महत्वपूर्ण स्थान रखता है. इस दिन में घतिट घटनाओं को लोग आज भी याद करते हैं. कौनसी महत्वपूर्ण घटनाएं हैं आईए नीचे दी गई सूची में जानते हैं. आज ही के दिन न्यूयॉर्क ने 1777 में एक स्वतंत्र राज्य के रूप में नया संविधान अपनाया. आज ही के दिन उत्तर प्रदेश के मुरादाबाद में 1888 में ओले गिरने से 246 लोगों की मौत हुई थी. अलबामा और मिसीसीपी में 1920 में आये तूफान से 220 लोगों की मौत हुई. जर्मनी में तानाशाह एडोल्फ हिटलर के 50वें जन्मदिन को 1939 में राष्ट्रीय दिवस के रूप में मनाया गया. सन 1940 में आरसीए द्वारा पहला इलेक्ट्रॉन माइक्रोस्कोप दिखाया गया था. कोरिया और संयुक्त राष्‍ट्र सेना के बीच 1953 में बीमार युद्ध बंदियों का आदान प्रदान हुआ था. कनाडा का एएमआईके ए-2 1973 में पहला व्यावसायिक उपग्रह बना. दुनिया का सबसे बड़ा मेला 1992 में एक्सपो-92ए सेविले, स्पेन में खोला गया.
20 अप्रैल की महत्त्वपूर्ण घटनाएं
-जहांदर शाह 1712 में दिल्ली की गद्दी पर बैठा.
-न्यूयॉर्क ने 1777 में एक स्वतंत्र राज्य के रूप में नया संविधान अपनाया.
-उत्तर प्रदेश के मुरादाबाद में 1888 में ओले गिरने से 246 लोगों की मौत.
-अलबामा और मिसीसीपी में 1920 में आये तूफान से 220 लोगों की मौत.
-जर्मनी में तानाशाह एडोल्फ हिटलर के 50वें जन्मदिन को 1939 में राष्ट्रीय दिवस के रूप में मनाया गया.
-सन 1940 में आरसीए द्वारा पहला इलेक्ट्रॉन माइक्रोस्कोप दिखाया गया था.
-कोरिया और संयुक्त राष्‍ट्र सेना के बीच 1953 में बीमार युद्ध बंदियों का आदान प्रदान हुआ था.
-कनाडा का “एएमआईके ए-2” 1973 में पहला व्यावसायिक उपग्रह बना.
-दुनिया का सबसे बड़ा मेला 1992 में एक्सपो-92, सेविले, स्पेन में खोला गया.
20 अप्रैल को जन्मे व्यक्ति
-अंग्रेजी के प्रसिद्ध कवि जॉन इलियट का जन्म 1592 में हुआ.
-जर्मन तानाशाह एडोल्फ हिटलर का 1889 में जन्म हुआ.
-उड़िया भाषा के प्रसिद्ध साहित्यकार गोपीनाथ मोहंती का जन्म 1914 में हुआ.
-प्रसिद्ध भजन गायिका जुथिका रॉय का जन्म 1920 में हुआ.
-एक लेखक होने के साथ-साथ उत्कृष्ठ कोटि के अनुवादक चन्द्रबली सिंह का जन्म 1924 में हुआ.
-भारतीय अभिनेत्री ममता कुलकर्णी का जन्म 1972 में हुआ.
20 अप्रैल को हुए निधन
-प्रसिद्ध बांसुरी वादक पन्नालाल घोष का 1911 में निधन.
-1912 में आयरिश उपन्यासकार ब्रैम स्टोकर का निधन.
-1960 में भारत के प्रसिद्ध बाँसुरी वादक पन्नालाल घोष का निधन.
-1970 में भारतीय गीतकार और शायर शकील बदायूँनी का निधन.
-2004 में राजस्थान के ऐसे व्यक्ति, जो राजस्थानी लोक गीतों व कथाओं आदि के संकलन एवं शोध हेतु समर्पित कोमल कोठारी का निधन.
20 अप्रैल के महत्वपूर्ण दिवस
-डॉ. हैनीमेन जन्‍म दिवस (होम्योपैथी चिकित्सा पद्धति के जन्मदाता.


Once again, Texas’s board of education exposed how poorly we teach history

When the 15-member Texas State Board of Education voted preliminarily last Friday on streamlining cuts to the state’s social studies curriculum, it made its usual splash. The verdict: Moses (whose “principles of laws and government institutions informed the American founding documents”), the “heroic” defenders of the Alamo and the “Arab rejection of the State of Israel” as the source of Middle East conflict stay in. Hillary Clinton and Helen Keller are out.

The decision to pare down the curriculum is a wise one. Texas students are required to study so many historical figures, groups and events (over 90 possibilities are listed in the fourth-grade standards alone) that it encourages a superficial examination of any one of them. Rather than deep study of cause and effect, young Texans come to equate history — and other fields within the social studies — with the joyless pursuits of chronicling and summarizing.

And yet, the removal of two women, one emblematic of early disability movements and the other our nation’s first female major-party presidential nominee, once again reveals that these are politically driven choices to favor a conservative, religiously inflected curriculum rather than educational ones designed to encourage critical thinking and analysis. The result is a curriculum that does a poor job of teaching the complexities of American history and does little to inspire students to engage with history in ways that are important to building a brighter American future.

Since 1917, when Texas law authorized the state board to purchase textbooks for all of its schools, a small group of people has held a great deal of power over what young Texans learn and how. And that group of people, largely non-educators, has long been influenced by conservative activist groups.

In the early 1920s, religious conservatives, including the Klan, induced the state board to forbid references to evolution in Texas textbooks. But they lacked sufficient political power to enact a law banning the teaching of evolution, as some other Southern states did.

It was during the Cold War that Texas conservatives truly found their footing in educational debates. The Daughters of the American Revolution allied with the recently formed John Birch Society and Texans for America to push the state board to fight communism. The board enthusiastically accepted the task. It repeatedly mandated the censorship or diminishment in history textbooks of, among others, labor unions, Social Security, the United Nations, racial integration and the Supreme Court. It compelled the inclusion of “the Christian tradition,” the free market and conservative heroes Joseph McCarthy, Herbert Hoover, Douglas MacArthur and Chiang Kai-shek.

The stakes were high for conservatives. The believed seemingly pro-communist, internationalist textbooks formed American children into weak citizens and a threat to national security. Social studies textbooks, the Houston Chronicle reported, had made American POWs easy to brainwash in the Korean War and could do so again.

Texans were not alone in fighting these battles. California conservatives considered attention to the United Nations “godless, atheistic, and un-American.” Indiana’s state board voted to cut Robin Hood from literature textbooks because he represented the “straight communist line.”

Yet even for the time, the fervency and reach of Red Scare politics in Texas stood out. In urban and rural areas alike, social conservatives, including evangelical Christians and segregationists, banded with economically driven opponents of federal power as they had not before. From Amarillo to San Antonio, textbook hearings drew parents, community members and local journalists who championed conservative censorship. Liberals, less cohesively organized, risked being charged with subversion if they spoke out. Texas officials made textbook authors and teachers sign loyalty oaths. Publishers quickly complied with the demands of the Texas board.

Today, in a changed political atmosphere, liberals still lack voice on the state board. Democrats occupy just five of 15 seats. Most members lack any public school teaching experience.

And all of this has a deep national impact. Even with the adoption of the Common Core State Standards elsewhere, Texas has maintained a special sway over the content of textbooks that serve students across the United States. During the Cold War, Texas shaped the work of every major national textbook publisher. Today, one of every 10 public school students in the United States is a Texan, and publishers still don’t want to print books that can’t be used in the state.

This has remained true even though Texas school districts have been allowed to independently adopt textbooks since 2010, so long as all state standards are taught and addressed. The change, initiated after a national uproar over the adoption of the “Moses standard,” has hardly led to better choices. In 2015, a Houston parent used social media to expose a geography textbook’s representation of slaves as “workers,” an inaccurate and disingenuous depiction that invariably stemmed from conservative activism. That textbook alone was assigned to 100,000 students.

Its substance reflected what University of Texas professor Robert Shattuck called in 1963 a “tears in my eyes” approach to history instruction, one that emphasizes hagiography and romanticism. More than the inclusion of any particular event or figure, it is this deeply simplistic, often anti-historical approach that presents the greatest obstacle to Texas students learning how the past can inform contemporary problems and debates.

Take, for example, “the siege of the Alamo.” Practically every one of Texas’s 254 counties has schools named after David Crockett and William Travis, and students should know why. But the lesson shouldn’t focus on whether the men were brave or brazen. Rather, it should delve into why and how the battle of the Alamo was fought. Students should learn that the Alamo skirmish was produced by the relationship of Anglo Texan settlers to slavery, indigenous removal, land speculation and Mexican statehood. The factors that led to the battle also shaped when and how Texas became a state.

Yet studying the political and social movements that produced the Alamo siege is an entirely different pursuit from studying “all the heroic defenders who gave their lives there,” as state standards dictate (the teacher task force recommended dropping this language of heroism but was rejected). It may be less optimistic, but it is far more truthful, relevant and interesting. We build statues to honor heroes we study history to pursue complex, sometimes difficult questions. Texas’s standards confuse the two, turning history into a frozen story line devoid of the necessary context.


Footnotes

MGO 9/71. Formed from five independent infantry companies authorized on the following dates: 'No. 1 Company' ([1st] Infantry Company at Truro, 28 May 1869), 'No. 2 Company' (Infantry Company at Onslow, 16 July 1869), 'No. 3 Company' ([2nd] Infantry Company at Truro,5 November 1869), 'No. 4 Company' (Infantry Company at Shubenacadie, 10 September 1869), and 'No. 5 Company' (Infantry Company at Windsor, 2 July 1869) / Formé de cinq compagnies d'infanterie indépendante autorisées selon les dates suivantes : « No. 1 Company » ([1st] Infantry Company at Truro, 28 mai 1869), « No. 2 Company » (Infantry Company at Onslow, 16 juillet 1869), « No. 3 Company » ([2nd] Infantry Company at Truro, 5 novembre 1869), «No. 4 Company » (Infantry Company at Shubenacadie, 10 septembre 1869), et « No. 5 Company » (Infantry Company at Windsor, 2 juillet 1869).


Watch the video: This Day in History, September 7