Charles X, the last Bourbon of France

Charles X, the last Bourbon of France

Carlos X He came to rule in France in a very delicate period. It was the last king of the Bourbons who ruled France and his abdication marked the end of absolutism in the Gallic country.

He was born on October 9, 1757 in Versailles, he was the son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, and brother of the French kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII. All his life, until his proclamation as king, he carried the title of Count of Artois. Carlos X He married on November 16, 1773 with María Teresa, daughter of Víctor Amadeo de Saboya. From this marriage was born Luis Antonio, Duke of Angouleme.

In July 1789, before the storming of the Bastille, Carlos X emigrated and became the head of the emigrated army. From this position he headed the Brunswick Manifesto in 1792, in which the French people were threatened by the Revolution. He spent many years in Great Britain, but was appointed lieutenant general of the kingdom to the death of Louis XVI in 1793. When Louis XVIII he had himself proclaimed king in 1795, organized landing operations on the continent from London.

With the Restoration In 1814, which he himself had prepared, he was head of the ultra-monarchists and of the Congregation during the reign of Louis XVIII, at whose death he ascended to the throne in 1824. He was against the king, who was more conciliatory and pardoned the supporters of Napoleon bonaparte. The Count of Artois sought to punish the revolutionaries by means of “White Terror”.

During his reign, he multiplied the disastrous measures that angered the liberal press and the opposition. Carlos X had absolutist and ultra-monarchical pretensions that were completely out of step with the ideas of the French bourgeoisie. To prevent the liberals from dominating the Chamber of Deputies, the monarch resorted to electoral fraud, blackmail and libel, which raised blisters among the population.

This discontent was clearly manifested in April 1827, when the very Royal Guard proffered insults against Carlos X, who had to dissolve that military body. In addition, the measures that were approved thanks to Villèle, such as the sacrilege law or the law on successions and substitutions, were greatly criticized by the public. His support for the Church must also be highlighted, since it tried to restore to him the lands that the French Revolution.

What ended up exploding the situation in 1830 It was the four royal ordinances of Saint Cloud that were passed on July 25. In them, freedom of the press was abolished, the Chamber of Deputies was dissolved, the electoral system was altered, and new elections were called for September. Thus, Carlos X and Polignac they wanted to completely control political power.

But what they provoked was the call revolution of "The glorious three" days of July 27, 28 and 29. The main consequence was the abdication of the king on August 2.

Charles X took refuge in Scotland until in 1832 Francis i invited him to live in Prague. Finally, on November 6, 1836, he died of a cholera outbreak. It would be the end of the Bourbon house in France.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved History and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.


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