The Revolution of 1830 in the countries that sought unification

The Revolution of 1830 in the countries that sought unification

The revolutionary fire that started in Paris in July 1830, passed through belgium Y for Poland before reaching the two nations that would end up seeking unification: Germany and Italy. In neither of them was there a massive need for union, but after the Revolutions of 1830, the need to unite in the same nation was established in both.

In the german states there was no national sentiment like the one that made the Poles rise up against the Russians. But thanks to the belgian uprising and Polish émigrés, German intellectual circles began to treat the concept of "national spirit”.

At that time there were few liberal movements and were quickly controlled by Metternich, who at the Diet of Frankfurt in 1832 affirmed that any liberal concession wrested by the people from the legitimate sovereigns was worthless. It was a absolutist reaffirmation who came to promise aid to any prince who was threatened by the revolution. But, so far, the only protests were made by students, who did not go beyond protest and propaganda acts.

The German zone was undergoing major economic changes that required the formation of a unified market of national dimensions, which Prussia did through the Customs Union, also called Zollverein, in 1834. But, although the situation was unfavorable, nationalism began to spread through the population of Germany, especially the Prussians, who would end up assuming the role of unifiers from 1848.

For their part, the insurrections of the Italian states did not have their origin in nationalism, but were protests against the absolutism of their rulers. They mainly focused on the Papal States and in the duchies of Parma, Modena and Tuscany. Secret societies, especially the Carbonari, proliferated in these territories and were in direct contact with the exiles in France. News of the Paris uprising reached the Italian peninsula and caused the insurrection to begin in 1831 in Modena.

The desire to protest against absolutists they instigated the creation of insurrectionary committees at the hands of Misley and Menotti in different areas of Italy. From Bologna to Parma, passing through Florence, the rebels took to the streets and put the Duke of Modena, Francisco IV, at the forefront of the revolution.

But all the good intentions and ideas they carried failed. The reason is that, while in Paris an Italian liberation junta published a manifesto advocating a republican solutionThe insurgents preferred Francisco IV, who ended up subjecting the rebels for fear that Austria might decide to invade their territory.

The defeat of the Italians was not a complete failure, since the submission to which they were subjected fueled nationalist sentiment. The provisional states that were formed they raised the tricolor flag of Italian unity. Little by little it spread everywhere, preparing the “Risorgimento”With the tendencies of the republicans of Mazzini's Young Italy, on the one hand, and those of the liberals of Gioberti and Balbo, on the other.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.

Video: Unification of Italy