For understand the Revolution of 1830 in France, it is necessary to know the context that caused the situation that then existed. It was an accumulation of events that were happening until ending with the outbreak of popular dissatisfaction on the part of the French population.
Since the Restoration, France had had two kings: Louis XVIII and Carlos X. During the reign of the former, the government remained relatively between the traditional and the liberal position. But with the arrival of Carlos X In 1824, everything changed. His mandate was marked by the ultra-realistic trends and by the growing discontent in French society. He drew up laws that became on the lips of all and that cost him opponents even within his followers.
In 1825, he devised the “Law of sacrilege", Which imposed the severest penalties on those who desecrated temples or stole sacred objects. It was so profound that it spoke of cutting off the hand or beheading the guilty. It did not come into force, but the population was completely unhappy. Later, an attempt was made to enact the “Law of the right to birthright”, Which sought to reinstate the majors of the Old Regime. But, although the Chamber of Deputies passed, it failed to get enough votes in the Chamber of Peers.
The "Law of compensation to emigrants”Was intended to return the assets confiscated by the French Revolution of 1789. The reality made it impossible for the return to be carried out, since these lands already had a new owner. For this reason, it was decided to compensate, something that increased the unrest among the population.
However, the “Vandals Law”Was the one that caused the situation to explode. This regulation was intended to control publications, so the Chamber was against. Villèle dissolved the courts and called elections again. On this occasion, the Liberals increased their deputies considerably, so Villèle resigned and Martinag replaced him, who tried to carry out a more conciliatory policy but ended up being relieved by a government of extreme conservatism, led by Prince Polignac. The policy of the new executive raised the criticism of the liberals, among whom were La Fayette, Thiers, Guizot and Victor Hugo. Not even General Bourmont's victory in Algiers caused the liberals to cease their criticism.
The situation became much more tense and reached the extreme when Carlos X published in July 1830 some ordinances that suspended the freedom of the press, dissolved the Chamber and reformed the electoral law trying to benefit those who were on their side. Seeing the possible rejection, the king decided to use in his favor Chapter XIV of the Charter, which gave him the power to dictate the ordinances and regulations necessary to enforce the laws.
The outbreak of discontent occurred on July 27, 1830. That day the "three glorious days", Also called"July days”, In which people took to the streets and barricaded themselves in barricades in Paris. Those mobilized were, in principle, workers, students and some deputy. What began as a revolt, ended up being a revolution that carried the republican flag as a banner.
A manifesto by Thiers proclaimed the nation's loyalty to the Duke of Orleans, Luis Felipe, who was appointed lieutenant of the kingdom. Carlos X abdicated and Louis Philippe became the "King of the French by the grace of God and by the will of the people”, That is to say, their power was based on national sovereignty.
Was the beginning of the stage of the liberal bourgeois monarchy, which would last until 1848. The consequence was that the aristocracy lost its preponderant role, which was occupied by the bourgeoisie of business and money. The electoral law was modified through a reduction in taxes and the age of voters, as well as an admission of direct suffrage. The freedom that the Charter promulgated allowed the birth of a large number of political parties, from the Orleanists to the Republicans and Bonapartists.
Undoubtedly, the success of this Parisian revolution eventually lit the fuse for other nationalist and liberal movements throughout Europe. The closest in time was the independence revolt in Belgium A few months later.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved History and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.