Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is considered by Mexicans as the "Father of the country"And as the"Initiator of independence”. From his position as parish priest of the small town of Dolores, he began the movement that would end in 1822 with the Mexico's independence.
Biography of Miguel Hidalgo
Miguel Hidalgo He was born on May 8, 1753 in Corralejo (Mexico) into a relatively wealthy class family. In 1765, he entered the Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo, a center run by the Society of Jesus in which they gave professorships in Latin, law, and priestly studies.
At the age of 17, he was already a teacher in philosophy and theology, showing great intelligence. He learned French and began to read illustrated authors. His relationship with the workers in his parents' house ended up giving him the ability to speak many of the indigenous languages of New Spain. He graduated and served as parish priest of the town called Dolores.
Behind the Napoleonic invasion of Spain, Gentleman participated in the conspiracy to overthrow Viceroy Venegas orchestrated in Querétaro.
At first, he had no interest in participating, but the military Ignacio Allende convinced him to join the movement. The priest was considered very valuable, since he had contacts with the most influential people in the area. The conspirators planned to start the movement in December 1810.
El Grito de Dolores: the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence
But the viceroy was aware that there was danger in the area, so he investigated and dismantled much of the network. However, Hidalgo was not arrested and on the morning of September 16, 1810 he carried out the “Pain scream”, A mass in which he harangued his parishioners to rise up against Spanish and Creole control. It was the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence.
Although in its beginnings it had an apparent realistic character, soon the insurrection took on a revolutionary end. This attracted a large number of Indians, which allowed the priest to form an army of up to 6,000 men, with whom he marched on Celaya, Salamanca, and Acámbaro. The successes made the rebels proclaim him captain general and he encouraged himself to continue conquering even the city of Guanajuato. In that city there was a massacre in the Alhóndiga de Granaditas, a winery in which the Spanish contingent took refuge.
After the conquest of all those cities gentleman He stated in a manifesto that the objective was the independence of the country. The priest also decreed the distribution of the lands to the Indians and the abolition of slavery and the tributes that weighed on Indians and mestizos. But he was not satisfied, but continued his advance to the city of Valladolid, the capital of Michoacán.
Death of Miguel Hidalgo
After the victory against Trujillo's royalist army in the battle of Monte de las Cruces on October 30, 1810, Hidalgo decided to retreat to Guadalajara. However, his army was defeated at Aculco and Guadalajara in January 1811. Dismissed from his posts, He was later arrested by royalist troops and shot in July 1811.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved History and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.