The Mexican independency came after two great stages. In the first, the feeling of nation was implanted in the lower strata of society but it did not triumph because the Spanish had the support of the Creoles and the ruling classes. In the second, the measures of the liberals in Spain enraged the upper classes, who joined the lower classes to expel the royalists.
It all started with the so-called "Grite of sorrows”On September 16, 1810. That day, the priest Miguel Hidalgo I know raised against the Spanish government of Mexico in the city of Dolores. In reality, the differential feature of this independence movement, in comparison with that of other South American countries, is the marked social and racial content it had. It was so extreme that it was closer to being an uprising against the Creole oligarchy than a response to Spanish rule.
Hidalgo managed to mobilize a large part of the peasant mass, which at that time was made up of indigenous people and mestizos, which gave it an army of enormous dimensions but lacking training. In this stage, Ignacio López Rayón stood out especially, who, along with Hidalgo, was fighting against the royalists.
In 1811, Viceroy Venegas had the help of Spanish troops and Creole aristocrats and bourgeoisie to crush the rebellion and capture its leader, who was shot in Chihuahua. But it was too late for slow down the movement, which happened to be in the hands of the priest Morelos, who proclaimed the independence of Mexico in 1813. After several combats, Morelos summoned the independence provinces to create the Congress of Anahuac, which endowed the rebel movement with its own legal framework and expanded its room for maneuver.
But in 1815, Morelos was caught and shot by the royalists. This largely crushed the independentistas, who went on to practice guerrilla warfare for the rest of the decade. Although they were still active, they were much less important, which allowed Venegas to restore the system he had before and stop them. Like, for example, López Rayón, who was captured in 1817 and imprisoned until 1820.
The second stage of the process Mexican emancipation began in 1820, as a direct consequence of the triumph of the Liberal revolution started by General Riego in Spain. The Cortes approved a series of anticlerical measures, such as the suppression of charters and privileges of the Church, which injured the interests of the Creoles and the natives established in New Spain alike. This made the high Creole spheres who in 1810 supported the royalists, this time they opted for emancipation.
By means of the approval of the Profesa plan and, in February 1821, the plan of the Iguala or the Three Guarantees, Mexico declared its Independence proclaiming a constitutional monarchy. This new system would have to be respectful of religion and the privileges of the different strata of society.
In May 1822, General Agustín de IturbideWith the support of the clergy and the upper classes, he proclaimed himself emperor. But he could only spend one year in power, since he was separated and Mexico became a federal republic and losing the territories of the former Captaincy of Guatemala, which would form the United Provinces of Central America or Central America.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved History and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.