Sucre, the military man who liberated Bolivia

Sucre, the military man who liberated Bolivia

Antonio jose de sucre He was one of the great soldiers who participated in the independence of Spanish America. His legacy was the countries that achieved independence thanks to their struggle and their desire to fulfill their emancipatory wishes. The friendship he kept with Bolivar It was something that would go down in history, since few people faced the Liberator directly and managed to get away with it. Sucre did it in Bolivia.

Descendant of a renowned family, Antonio jose de sucre He was born on February 3, 1795 in Cumaná (Venezuela). He was the son of Vicente de Sucre y Urbaneja, a Venezuelan patriot who received the title of illustrious hero, and the grandson of Carlos Sucre y Pardo. His childhood was marked by the loss of his mother when he was seven years old, which meant that he was sent to Caracas in the care of his godfather and began studying military engineering at the José Mires School.

In 1810, Sucre managed to reach the rank of officer of the independence army and accompanied Miranda on his liberation campaign. But the capitulation of San Mateo in July 1812 caused him to flee to avoid realistic repression. His destination was Trinidad, where he joined the military Mariño, Bermúdez and Piar to first undertake the campaign in Venezuela in 1813 and, later, that of Caracas. However, the defeats of Aragua and Ulrica forced him to take refuge in the Antilles.

Sucre participated in the defense of Cartagena de Indias between August and December 1815. His merits in Guiana and under the Orinoco raised him to the rank of Brigadier General. In 1818, after completing a series of successful missions, he joined Bolívar in the city of Angostura and became a great friend of his. This friendship would last until the end, to the point that Sucre's death would be a real moral collapse for Bolívar.

The successes that he accumulated led to Mariño appointing him chief of the general staff in the Venezuelan East first and, later, of the Bolivarian army. In 1820, Sucre was elected representative of Gran Colombia for the signing with General Pablo Morillo of the armistice treaties and the regulation of the war.

In Santa Ana, with the help of San Martín, Yaguachi incorporated Gran Colombia. The Battle of Pichincha it was a true triumph for Sucre, who was imposed on the realist Aymerich in May 1822. The victory meant the liberation of the Ecuadorian provinces and a strong blow to the royalist aspirations to maintain control of the area.

His military actions were soon known throughout the continent, so that some areas asked for his help. This is how in 1823 he helped the Peruvian junta of La Mar against the royalists. Again he rose victorious, which caused him to impose himself on the rulers. First, in July, he elected Torre Tagle and, in August, Bolívar, who took power.

In August 1824, Sucre participated with the Liberator in the battle of Junín and, after the march from the Andes, Sucre defeated Viceroy La Serna at Ayacucho in December 1824. This triumph represented the culmination of South American independence. As a reward for all this effort, the Peruvian Congress awarded him the title of Grand Marshal of Ayacucho and was promoted to General in Chief.

To the enter La Paz (Upper Peru), Sucre promulgated an independence decree in February 1825 that was based on local sentiments against Rio de la Plata or Peru. Against the wishes of Santa Cruz, the military chief of the area, and those of Bolívar, Sucre called a deliberative assembly to decide the future of the place. The elections were held on March 25 and the assembly met in Chuquisaca (present-day Sucre) on May 10. The votes were clear and left no doubt, so that on August 6 the independence of the provinces of Upper Peru was proclaimed.

By desire of SucreBolívar was asked to draft the draft constitution. Although it seemed that the Liberator was reluctant to this split, the truth is that he ended up recognizing the independence of Bolivia in January 1826. Sucre was elected president for life in December 1826 but the fall of the Bolivarian regime at the hands of Santa Cruz in Peru in 1827, caused a military uprising in Bolivia that isolated him and made him resign from office in April 1828.

Gamarra entered the country from Peru and imposed the treaty of Piquiza in July, and Sucre went into exile in Ecuador. From there he fought with the Colombians against Peru and, after winning at La Mar, established the peace of Piura. Ecuador chose him as its representative in the general congress of Colombia meeting in Bogotá in 1830.

That same year, while on his way to Quito to prevent the culmination of Ecuador's independence was assassinated on June 4. According to the most widespread theories, it was by order of José María Obando, military commander of the Beríritu area. Sucre died, leaving behind a wide legacy that crowned him as an excellent military man and a defender of the ideas of the emancipation of Spanish America.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was a child he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.


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