Biography of Francisco de Miranda

Biography of Francisco de Miranda

Francisco de Miranda was one of the great figures of the independence of Spanish America in the 19th century. Many historians consider him one of the pioneers of the american emancipation. From his position as a politician and military man, he managed to liberate a large part of Venezuela but ended up being accused of treason and handed over to Spain.

Miranda was born on March 28, 1750 in Caracas as son of a Canarian canvas merchant. His academic life was spent essentially in Venezuela. On January 10, 1762, Miranda entered the University of Caracas, where she studied mostly Latin and grammar, as well as History and Arts. In 1771, he moved to Spain to serve in the Spanish royal army.

From this moment, he would begin a long journey that lasted most of his life. Fought in the American War of Independence in 1780. From there he went to Cuba, where he informed the Captain General of Cuba on the operations and capacity of the English army in the sector. However, although he should have been promoted, in 1778 he was accused by the Inquisition of having prohibited books. But thanks to the support of Commander Cajigal, he was able to temporarily avoid being transferred to Spain to stand trial.

But the issues against Miranda worsened in Havana, so the young military man decided to go into exile to the United States on July 10, 1783. There he found refuge and he sought help for his independence projects. At all times he maintained his relationship with Venezuela.

One of Miranda's most prominent features was her membership in Freemasonry. Throughout his life, he visited the main European lodges in order to obtain the necessary support to organize the revolution in Spanish America. These trips took him to London in 1790, where he did not get Pitt's support, but he did get found the American Lodge.

The outbreak of the French Revolution it was a call for him, who would eventually become a quarterback. The success of the revolutionary ideas led Miranda to form in 1797 a Board of Deputies from Mexico, Peru, Chile, La Plata, Venezuela and New Granada. In addition, he began to maintain an assiduous correspondence with Manuel Gual in 1797 and met Bernardo O'Higgings.

In 1805, Pitt gave him financial aid and Miranda moved back to the United States where he managed to obtain advantages and privileges from President Jefferson. A year later, he tried to land in Venezuela in the small town of Ocumare de la Costa. But he failed and had to take refuge first on the island of Grenada and, later, in Barbados. In August he managed to occupy Coro, but lack of resources meant that he returned to Great Britain in 1808, where he joined Simon Bolivar.

The revolution in Caracas In April 1810, he made both Bolívar and he return to their country, where he was elected constituent deputy and advocated for total independence on July 5, 1811. During the following months he devoted himself to fighting and fighting against the royalists to defend Venezuelan freedom. In August, managed to subdue the royalists of Valencia, so that he was appointed generalissimo in the following April. His campaign continued to be a success, to the point that in May 1812 he reached the position of dictator.

However, his glory did not last long, as could not stop the Spanish attack and capitulated in La Victoria on July 25, 1812 in exchange for the respect of Venezuelans. The Spanish violated the agreement and his compatriots accused him of treason. A group led by Bolívar captured him in La Guaira when he planned to go into exile. In exchange for some favorable treatment, he was handed over to the royalists, who sent him to the peninsula.

On July 15, 1816 he died imprisoned in the Carraca arsenal (San Fernando).

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was a child he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.


Video: Francisco de Miranda en Francia 1792