Unification processes of the 19th century

Unification processes of the 19th century

The 19th century was plagued with revolts after the end of Napoleonic rule of Europe. The uprisings of 1820 were the ones that began to generate the nationalist and liberal ideas that would end up being enshrined in 1830 and 1848. Those years were vital to establish the idea of ​​nation within some countries. Within the great empires and in Spain the nationalist ideas. But undoubtedly the most prominent were in Italy and Germany.

In this countries, nationalist movements had a special force, of such magnitude that they ended up configuring two new states. Although the nationalist revolutions of 1848 failed in both kingdoms, the truth is that they were romantic and poorly organized ideas. These ideas were engraved within the mentality of people who no longer saw unity as something possible, but as something necessary.

The unifying movements of Italy and Germany they had several characteristics in common. On the one hand, a unifying nucleus capable of accomplishing the task at the expense of others. That role was adopted by Prussia and Piedmont with great ease. On the other hand, an outstanding politician was required to bring the process to fruition.

In both cases, singular politicians appeared who were capable of setting up and coordinating for the same purpose the military, diplomatic and sentimental means that the unifying nucleus offered them: Bismarck and Cavour. And finally, an intelligent monarch who would limit himself to playing his role and leaving political power in the hands of those who knew, as was the case with Victor Emmanuel II and Guillermo I.

In both movements liberalism was tried to be left aside, giving full importance to nationalism. For this reason, the governments made sure that this national feeling controlled the situation at all times and that it maintained power and order through authority. Military strategists, like General Moltke in Prussia, had great relevance.

It should be noted above all the role of the Prussian army that managed to prevail in only 3 conflicts (War of the Duchies, War of the Seven Weeks and Franco-Prussian War) to all the powers of Central Europe and seize their territories from the hands of their rivals.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved History and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.

Video: Italian and German Unification: Crash Course European History #27