His full name was Gaius Julius Caesar, although it is better known simply as Julius Caesar. Was born July 12 or 13, 100 B.C. in Rome. Her family was patricia, a wealthy family, from the gens Julia. His family had stood aside in the power struggle to reach the Consulate.
When he was 10 years old, he was put to disposition of Marco Antonio Gnifón, who taught him subjects such as classical literature. Thanks to the translation of the Odyssey, he learned to read and write. In addition, he gradually improved his language and the rules of oratory, important to be a good politician.
In the beginning, his family had not held high positions in the government. However, his aunt Julia had married Key Mario, a powerful commoner thanks to his military skill, so the family began to get involved in political issues, acceding the father of Caesar to the pretura. Julio would attend the ceremony that changed his childhood clothes by the adults when I was 15 years old. In that same year his father passed away.
Shortly after married Cornelia, the daughter of one of the top leaders, Cinna. In this way, his family got involved in political life and faced the corrupt patricians. Of this marriage their daughter Julia was born. It was designated flamen dialis, priest of jupiter, thanks to the influence of his aunt.
In 82 BC, Sulla made him go back to the old frontiers, returning to Rome and taking revenge against his adversaries, whom he assassinated and prohibited the promotion to public office of his descendants. Further, established a dictatorship. As a consideration to some patrician families, demanded that Caesar repudiate his wife, to which César replied “tell your master that in Caesar only Caesar commands”And fled to Asia.
Despite Sulla's reluctant forgiveness, he did not want to return to Rome and was at the service of the propretor Termes, who conferred on him the rank of officer. Thanks to his victories, Termes decided to send him to the court of the king of Bithynia, Nicomedes. A great friendship emerged between the two. After his death, it became a roman province.
Julius Caesar's return to Rome
When Sulla died, Caesar returned to Rome in 78 BC. Sulla had left everything well organized, so that his followers dominated the Senate. He decided to travel to Rhodes where he trained in rhetoric and oratory. During the trip he was kidnapped by pirates who finally released him. After this, he assembled a small army took revenge on the pirates, crucifying in Miletus the few who had survived. Thanks to the loot obtained and the will of Nicomedes, cleaned up their coffers.
In 74 BC his uncle Aurelio Cota died. After his death, he filled the vacant position in the College of Pontiffs of Rome and the following year he acceded to the military tribune. In 68 BC it was appointed quaestor. Three years later he was appointed curul mayor.
In the year 63 the president of the College of Pontiffs died, so presented his candidacy to such a position. Thanks to the popularity he had among the people, he was named pontifex maximus. Was appointed praetor in the year 62 and propretor in Hispania Ulterior. Thanks to your stay there enriched the Roman coffers, which strengthened its position. He returned to Rome in 60 BC.
One year later faced the equites, the powerful Roman society, to get appointed consul. Thanks to his friend Crassus, he managed to constitute along with Pompey a triumvirate, a mutual defense society. Thanks to this he was appointed consul. The triumvirate was strengthened by marriage between Pompey and Julia, Caesar's daughter, while Caesar married Calpurnia.
Caesar would have legislation with agrarian base. He proposed laws for distribute the lands between the veterans and the colonists of the new lands being conquered. Seeing the strength that he was beginning to have, Publius Vatinio proposed to name him proconsul, in addition to granting him three legions, the provinces of Gaul and Illyria.
Caesar seized all power when Crassus died in 53 BC in the war against the Parthians. Further, Pompey was in Hispania. How pontifex maximus made Clodius, former lover of his wife Pompeii, adopted by a commoner so that he could gain access to tribune of the plebs. After achieving this, he took care of eliminate Caesar's enemies.
The conquests of Gaul and Britain
Began the occupation of Gaul when the eduos asked him for help when they were threatened by the Helvetians, who were seeking to obtain their territories. Caesar's troops easily defeated them thanks to their Lieutenants Labienus and Crassus. The territories were completely looted, with a third of its population dying in the fighting and another third sold as a slave.
Despite the defeats, Caesar became with all the Gallic territory. He tried to extend his territory towards Britain in the 55s and 54s, reaching beyond the Thames, but had to withdraw. The following year there were again revolts in Gaul, revolting the Eburones and Trevins and many Gallic peoples. under the command of Vercingetorix. In the winter of the year 51 they managed to defeat the Gauls and thanks to their conquests they managed to enrich the roman treasure.
The power that Caesar had gained caused the senatorial party and the republicans to panic. The Senate appointed Pompey as sole consul, now become your enemy. He asked Caesar to discharge his legions and return to the capital. Caesar was undecided and on impulse led his troops unleashing a civil war.
He entered Rome, summoned the Senate and imposed its conditions. Caesar definitively defeated Pompey in Pharsalia. He fled to Alexandria where he was assassinated on September 28, 48 BC by soldiers of King Ptolemy, brother and husband of the queen cleopatra.
Caesar arrived in Egypt carrying two of his legions. There he came to the royal palace and tried put order to the difficult internal situation of the country. He met Cleopatra and had a relationship with her from which Caesarion was born. Caesar bestowed the throne on Cleopatra, but the presence of the Roman troops enraged the people, who rebelled.
He was confined to the palace for four months until he arrived Mithridates of Pergamum and was able to meet him. Thanks to the combination of the troops he managed to defeat the Egyptians in a bloody battle in which Ptolemy passed away. Cleopatra went with Caesar to Rome until he died. When he returned he had again clashes against his senatorial enemies, but he was not defeated, pronouncing his famous phrase: “vini, vidi, vici”.
Caesar ruled the entire Roman republic and the Mediterranean territories, managed to have all power. He was imperator and dictator. Decided to celebrate with big parties but always keeping in mind the gold in the coffers; too protected the less strong with new economic laws,limited the spending of the powerful, changed the calendar and he made big political changes by passing new laws.
He also decided to carry out a expedition against childbirth to maintain the dominion of the East. For this he had to name himself absolute king of Rome. That was what brought about 60 members of important families together to eliminate him and reinstate the former republic. They led the conspiracy Cassius, Brutus and Casca, staunch enemy. Casca fought with Caesar but it was easy to buy him. Brutus was also the son of Servilia, one of Caesar's mistresses, and had been adopted by him.
Caesar appeared before the Senate on March 15, 44 BC, the famous Ides of March, to discuss the confrontation against the Parthians. Despite the fact that his wife insisted that he not come because of the bad omens he had and that someone had detained Marco Antonio Before entering the Senate, Caesar introduced himself.
When he sat down they surrounded him and stabbed him. Seeing that her son was also one of her killers, she screamed "You too, my son!" He was silent as he was stabbed. In total he had received 23 stabs. Fell lifeless before the statue of Pompey.
Video: The conspiracy and the assassination of Julius Caesar.
Two days later the Senate met to discuss the situation. Measures were approved between the two sides: the murderers would not be punished and the work and person of Caesar would not be condemned. Power fell into the hands of Marco Antonio.
In his will he granted 300 sesterces to those most in need, he gave his Trastevere gardens to the people, the implication of Marco Antonio on murderers. Finally, he named his nephew grandson Octavio as his successor.
Images: Public Domain
Image Map of the Roman territories after the conquests of Julius Caesar: Christian64
With a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication, since I was a child I have been attracted to the world of information and audiovisual production. Passion for informing and being informed of what is happening in every corner of the planet. Likewise, I am pleased to be part of the creation of an audiovisual product that will later entertain or inform people. My interests include cinema, photography, the environment and, above all, history. I consider it essential to know the origin of things to know where we come from and where we are going. Special interest in curiosities, mysteries and anecdotal events in our history.