The Revolutions of 1820 as the beginning of liberal change in Europe

The Revolutions of 1820 as the beginning of liberal change in Europe

The Revolutions of 1820 are the beginning of the definitive fragmentation of absolutism and the old regime in Europe. Were nationalist movements that were based on achievement of a liberal state, without depending on a king who concentrated all the absolute power. They were at the antipodes of Congress of Vienna and the pacts signed by the Holy Alliance.

In the past, most revolutions took place in Northern Europe (France, 1789) or across the Atlantic Ocean (United States, 1776). But the Revolutions of 1820 were concentrated in southern Europe. Specifically, Spain was the epicenter of riots that would spread to Italy, Portugal and Greece. They would also reach the north, to Prussia or France, but with much less intensity.

The emergence of these new liberal demands it was a bourgeois reaction to the Restoration forcedly applied by the allies. As is known, the Restoration it sought to restore, not reformulate the previous absolutist theories to adapt them to the new European and world social reality. This was not accepted by the population in many countries, where conspiracy cells were organized in the form of secret societies (Carbonari) that They sought to continue with the spirit initiated by the French Revolution in 1789.

Since the General Irrigation made his famous pronouncement in Spain, all the peoples of the adjacent nations adapted it to their particular ideology and served as a catalyst for their own nationalist movements. The success of the beginning of the liberal triennium in Spain infected Portugal, Greece and Italy. It was precisely in the latter that they emerged with greater force in Piedmont and Naples.

Even though these liberal revolutions were unsuccessfulThey had a considerable impact on the future of Europe and even the world. On the one hand, they were the key to Revolution of 1830 and the Revolution of 1848, movements that finally ended absolutism in Europe.

On the other hand, the revolts of 1820 They marked the end of the Ottoman Empire's dominance over Greece, as they achieved independence and the support of European powers, especially the United Kingdom. And finally, the murky Spanish political panorama was taken advantage of by some colonies to gain independence from the Iberian crown. Nationalisms and protests arose throughout South America that would eventually achieve their emancipation from Spanish rule.

Definitely, although it was not a revolution that triumphed in Europe (except for the independence of Greece), represented a change that penetrated the mentality of the time and that it would eventually explode again in 1830 and 1848. In addition, a movement began to emerge that had been neglected in recent years: nationalism.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.

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