Biography of Caesar Augustus, the first emperor

Biography of Caesar Augustus, the first emperor

Caesar Augustus, also know as Octavio, was the first roman emperor, since with his predecessor the Republic that had ruled Rome died. Furthermore, it was the Roman emperor who the longest he was in power.

Was born September 23, 63 BC in Rome, in the bosom of a wealthy and wealthy family; his father was a praetor of Macedonia and his mother was the great-niece of Julius Caesar.

After his birth he had to move to the town where his father was originally from, Velletri. During his youth he showed great aptitude for politics and the military, so Julius Caesar decided to adopt him in 45 BC and made him his heir.

He carried out several campaigns in Hispania and had to face the Parthians in Epirus, where he received the news of Julius Caesar's death in 44 BC. He then headed for the capital and when he arrived he found that Marco Antonio and Lepido had divided the territory.

Octavian battles to gain power

He had to fight against Marco Antonio to obtain power. For this he had the support of Cicero, Senate Republicans, and big financiers, thanks to which he was able to afford his own army.

After defeating Marco Antonio, he returned to Rome and demanded that the Senate they appoint him consul But due to his age, just 20 years old, his request was denied.

Due to this rejection, marched on Rome to take power. He did so without any combat, since all the troops, including those sent against him, supported him.

Once appointed consul, he decided grant yourself extraordinary powers. Due to the resistance of Brutus and Cassius, who refused to accept him, he allied with his old enemies Marco Antonio and Lepido and formed a triumvirate.

This resulted in the continued persecution of republicanswhich would end in 42 BC at the Battle of Philip in Macedonia.

The sharing of power

This done, he decided distribute power together with Marco Antonio, leaving him the eastern zone while he controlled the western one. This produced a confrontation between the two, the war of Perugia, in which Agrippa, on Octavian's side, defeated the troops of Marco Antonio.

Then a new agreement was made to distribute power. Octavian would rule the entire western part; Marco Antonio would have the power of the eastern part but up to the Drin river; Lepidus would dominate Africa; and finally Italy would be ruled by the three jointly. To keep the peace, Marco Antonio married Octavio's sister, Octavia the Younger.

Shortly after, Marco Antonio had fallen under the net of the queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, with whom he had fallen in love. This governed with a more typically Eastern policy, which Augustus did not like at all, since he was against roman interests. Because of this, he declared war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

A year later it would come out victorious of the battle of Accio, after which he managed to enter Alexandria. Shortly after, and seeing his defeat, Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. Egypt became a roman province, which gave Octavio control of the entire Mediterranean area.

Caesar Augustus: Emperor

Once he returned to Rome, he decided change the form of government. It transformed the Republic into a political system more akin to an empire, in which power was divided into the Senate and the people on the one hand, and the emperor and his house on the other.

Among his measures was to renew himself the title of consul, in addition to be awarded new titles to increase their power, like Princeps senatus; Augustus, with a divine background; Imperator Proconsulare in some of the territories to have military power; Lifetime Tribute, Lifetime Consul, Prefect of Customs, Grand Pontiff and finally Father of the Nation.

He rejected his divinization in life, but he had the cult of the emperor by all the inhabitants.

One of its main missions was improve the economy and stability of Rome, which was threatened by the great extension of the territories. For it, reformed the institutions and adapted them to the needs of the empire, creating the Prince's Council, which included people who had the favor of the emperor, such as Agrippa.

He also divided the provinces into two types of territory; first, the senatorial, in order that they were governed by a person appointed by the Senate; on the other hand they were the imperial ones, which would be ruled by the emperor himself.

Likewise, reorganized the tax system, establishing a direct and less aggressive management. He favored those belonging to the equestrian order from which he came rather than the aristocracy from the Senate.

Too secured the borders from the extensive territory of the constant confrontations with the Parthians and the Germans, in addition to continuing to expand the empire in the eastern part. Due to her lack of children, adopted Tiberius as his successor.

Death of Caesar Augustus

He died on August 19, year 14 in Nola. After his death, Tiberius got power without problems. Thanks to the great work he had done, the people asked that it will be divinized, after which the name of Augustus would be used as a title by the following emperors. His body was transferred to Rome and burned in the Mars field.

Cover image: Cris Photo in Stock Photos / Shutterstock

With a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication, since I was a child I have been attracted to the world of information and audiovisual production. Passion for informing and being informed of what is happening in every corner of the planet. Likewise, I am pleased to be part of the creation of an audiovisual product that will later entertain or inform people. My interests include cinema, photography, the environment and, above all, history. I consider it essential to know the origin of things to know where we come from and where we are going. Special interest in curiosities, mysteries and anecdotal events in our history.


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