The Russian October Revolution (in November, according to the Gregorian calendar) is also commonly known as “Red October”And designates the period in which the Bolsheviks prevailed over the rest of the liberal, conservative and socialist revolutionaries.
October was terrible in Russiaespecially in the city of Petrograd. There were food shortages and every time the discontent of the people increased more and more. Taking advantage of this situation, Lenin took a definitive step to proclaim “his revolution”.
The political landscape was divided. On one side was Kornilov, who represented a traditional right concerned with national defense; on the other, to Kerensky, leader of the moderate left in favor of the political revolution; and on the other, to Lenin and the supporters of the social revolution. Kornílov tried to arrive at the power by means of a coup d'etat on the provisional government presided over by Kerensky.
However, the push was dismantled with the help of all popular forces, including the Bolsheviks. Seeing the gap between Kerensky and the right, Lenin understood that the time had come for armed insurrection and turned to Trotsky, who would go on to direct a “Revolutionary military committee"I was looking for help to achieve"the victory of the Revolution that will bring land, bread and peace”.
Once Lenin arrived in Saint Petersburg On October 9, 1917, the revolutionary panorama acquired a much more dynamic perspective. On October 10, the Central Committee decided on armed insurrection and, during the following days, Lenin neutralized the pacifist tendencies of Kamenev, Zinoviev and Trotsky. At the end of the month, he settled in headquarters of the Petrograd Soviet (Smolny Institute) and began to personally direct all operations.
The revolutionary forces had three different combat battalions. First, the Red Guards, who were essentially armed workers who enveloped the center of the city from the north, east and south. Then, forming the second inner semicircle, were the revolutionary units of the Petrograd garrison. And finally, the Baltic army units, which had planned to enter from the west of the city.
The day that he ended up deciding all the different contests and consolidated the Lenin's Revolution was on October 25. That day all key possessions were taken (government buildings), with the exception of the residence of the tsars, also known as the "Winter Palace", which would fall a few hours later. Kerensky was forced to flee and the Petrograd Soviet took over.
The Council of People's Commissars was in charge of conveying the new political situation to the public. But the fighting lasted longer in other cities, such as in Moscow, where it lasted seven days due to the large number of counterrevolutionary forces it had.
The Bolsheviks assumed all power, leaving aside the rest of the forces that had fought in the revolution (Social Revolutionaries and Mensheviks, mainly). As soon as he was victorious, Lenin established a series of decrees to satisfy the aspirations of the soldiers, the peasants, the workers and the alien peoples.
The first decree was "that of Peace", which offered all belligerent governments a just and equitable peace, without annexations or taxes. This law was followed by one that passed the land into the hands of the peasants, without compensation for its former owners. Among the rest of the measures was the revocation of properties and privileges to the Church; the nationalization of banks, transport and factories; the self-government of nationalities; and the disappearance of the landowners.
The first Government composed of “People's Commissars”. They were political positions with specific responsibilities. Here, leaders such as Trotsky (Foreign Commissioner), Stalin (Commissioner for Nationalities) and Rykov (Commissioner for the Interior). All of them, as well as Lenin's leadership, were elected by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, celebrated in the same days of the Revolution.
Finally, on January 5 (January 18 on the Gregorian calendar) of 1918, Russia was proclaimed a Federal Democratic Republic. But from this moment and for two years, he suffered a bloody civil war, due to the progressive expansion of Red October and his revolutionary ideas.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was a child he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.