The twentieth century It stands out for having contained a large number of relevant figures and characters. One of the most important was Adolf hitler, who would have a great impact on western society, on the way of conceiving war and on the relations between the different countries.
His lust for vengeance and power raised him as the leader of the Nazi Germany, self-baptized as III Reich, and plunged Europe into its darkest and most difficult times with a firm totalitarian doctrine. Only the union of the majority of Western countries could put an end to its reign of terror.
However, few people know the origins of the German dictator. Adolf hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau (Austria) within a wealthy family. His father was a customs officer and did not belong to any relevant social circle. He did not stand out especially for his studies, but rather the opposite.
Moved to Vienna after leaving the Realschule studies (German equivalent of preparation for vocational training) to try to succeed as an artist. He twice failed the entrance exam to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and decided to live off temporary jobs, as well as the little money he made selling postcards. His stay in the Austrian capital marked the beginning of the anti-Semitic sentiment that would guide his future social policy. They would be the prolegomena of what, over the years, would become his party and personal doctrine.
This situation would continue until outbreak of World War I, which at that time was known as the Big war, when he enlisted in the Austrian Bavarian Army in 1914. He had a prominent role in the German Army and it was then that his ideas began to mature. With the armistice signature In 1918, Hitler began to launch his Political messages against Social Democrats and Marxists, and appropriated the "Dolchstoßlegende” (Legend of the stab from behind).
This legend blamed socialist leaders for betraying citizens and the army. In any case, the war was what saved Adolf Hitler from a precarious life with no prospect of improvement in the future.
During the interwar period would take place his rise to power in Germany. But not only a political promotion, but also a personal one. Hitler became known as an agitator and in 1920 he joined the “Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei”(German Workers Party), which stood out as a political party German nationalist, anti-Semitic and anti-capitalist.
Just a year later he got the position of spokesperson and leader of that group. One of his first measures was the name change. He chose to baptize it as "Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei”(National Socialist German Workers' Party).
One of the first measures of this new party was the creation of the "Ordnungsdienst". It was a kind of voluntary service responsible for the security of conferences and party meetings. It was made up of soldiers with experience on the battlefield and who enjoyed excellent physical preparation. This service would go down in history known as “Sturmabteilung"Or"SA”(Assault Sections).
Little by little, Hitler was gaining social relevance in mass rallies and in mass gatherings (usually in breweries, it was the norm at the time). He emerged as an excellent speaker who convinced everyone with his arguments. His goal was to seize power in Munich and, as a consequence, in Bavaria and throughout Germany.
However, on November 9, 1923 he was arrested in that city because of the Brewery Putsch, also known as “Hitlerputsch” (Hitler's coup). He was sentenced to 13 months in jail.
His stay in prison is what would end up giving shape to all his ideals. Not only personally, but at the party level, since all his followers began to see him as a martyr who was imprisoned for the cause. The idea of "sufferer”Increased with writing of the book "Mein Kampf" (My Struggle), in which he exposed all the themes of German nationalism that he conceived as correct.
He wrote about the superiority of the Aryan race over the races "impure”, giving special emphasis to the supremacy against the Slavs and the Jews. To the latter, he began to accuse them of all the evils that plagued society. He also dealt with Pan-Germanism, that is, the idea of the creation of a Great German Nation that would unite Austria and Germany, as well as all the territories that once belonged to the Germanic kingdoms.
This point is representative of its Austrian provenance. Some historians claim that he did it to somehow validate his non-German descent. Of course, the entire book contains slogans against communism, socialism, and parliamentarism. Faced with these concepts, he places the cult of force and violence, and makes a clear apology for war to take revenge, above all, on France.
Once released, Hitler became much more extreme than he had been before. In 1925 he strengthened his party by creating the “Schutzstaffel"Or"H.H” (Defense squads). It was a political, military and police organization that would be in charge of guaranteeing the defense of the party. Social groups such as the “Hitlerjugend”(Hitler Youth) and groups for women. All to reinforce two ideas: the figure of Hitler as leader and the ideals of the party.
The difficult economic situation what was created from 1929 facilitated the rise to power of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party) and, as is logical, of the figure of Adolf hitler. Germany was in much greater crisis than the rest of the world, as not only had the financial system collapsed, but they also still owed many millions of marks to the allies of World War I in repair costs.
France had not eased the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, If not the opposite. The Government of the Weimar Republic He did nothing to prevent it, so Hitler and the other extremist party leaders found it extremely easy to convince the population of the need for change. Goebbels and Hitler's propaganda little by little it would make room within society to generate distrust of non-existent problems.
The change would come in 1932, when the NSDAP managed to win a large part of the elections throughout Germany, becoming the first party in the country. With the help of Franz von Papen, the then chancellor, Hitler became the new chancellor in 1933.
In 1934, the future German dictator eliminated his political enemies inside and outside his own party and the SA in the Night of the Long Knives (Operation Hummingbird). Finally, after the death of President Hindenburg that same year, Hitler proclaimed himself Reichsführer of Germany.
This is where his political stage, in which it should be noted that he carried out the ideology he created with “Mein Kampf”. He set in motion the state police, which he would call Gestapo, and that he would use to find all those who were against him or the regime. It also started with the so-called "Endlösung”(Final Solution), that is, with the Jewish Holocaust. Anyone who was Jewish or had Jewish blood would be annihilated. For this he created a large number of concentration camps and the "Blutschutzgesetze”(Laws for the Protection of Blood).
At the foreign policy level, he began his european expansionism seeking to create the pan-Germanic state he had described in his book, as well as ending the demands of the Treaty of Versailles. In 1939 the war against Poland began and, 6 years later, it ended losing WWII. The beginning of the war featured the famous Blitztkriege (Lightning Wars) and fast campaigns that aimed to make conquests in record time. Until the stalemate in the war in 1943 and the entry of the United States, they worked. Then little by little Germany fell back.
According to the official version, Adolf Hitler committed suicide in the bunker he was hiding in in Berlin in 1945. A year earlier, he had been the target of an internal attack in the Operation Valkyrie, so he distrusted his closest circle. But it was not until the end, when the allies penetrated the city, that the dictator who spread panic and war for Europe decided to kill himself in the total solitude of his bunker.
His suicide was the way to avoid any condemnation by the allies and an attempt to keep his personal honor intact. It was the end of one of the world's greatest genocides, which democratically rose to power in a country as advanced as Germany, and which led the old continent to a state of destruction and death unprecedented in history.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was a child he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.