On December 15, AD 37 he was born in Antium (Lazio region) who would come to rule under the name of Nero and that would go down in the annals of history as the most disturbed, bloodthirsty and megalomaniac Emperor of how many there were, surpassing even the figure of the unbalanced Caligula, although as always, we must be very careful and take care of the sources that we treat.
Born as a result of consanguinity, since his parents Gneo Domicio Enobardo and Agripina, belonged to the same Lineage of the Julio-Claudia.
There are many authors who blame to inbreeding that unbalanced character both in the emotional and psychological sphere that would accompany Nero throughout his life and that would be accentuated as of his maturity.
Since childhood, young Nero was exceptionally educated. It was tradition in Rome that the basic education of young noblemen was entrusted to Greek freedmen, or rather, freedmen from the Greek zone occupied by the Empire.
The sources that it leaves us Suetonius, if we are to give it any credibility because the reader must know that myth, imagination, adulation, hatred, morbid and reality are mixed in such a way in classical texts that it is impossible to discern what is true in them.
However, they quote us that, far from the neatness, elegance and refinement of the former, Nero he had as tutors a barber and a dancer and as literary teachers Aniceto and Berilo, two characters of more than dubious morality.
To the above, we should add the great oriental influence received by his nurses and that some authors point out a certain Egyptian influence, which would develop in the importance that the solar cult had in the Emperor, being represented on several occasions as Helios himself.
To this breeding ground, we should add the fact that Nero was educated in exile, as his mother had been involved in one of the conspiracies against the emperor Caligula. The classical sources reflect to us a marked spiteful and conniving character of Agrippina, which probably infected her son.
Fortunately, the education of Nero, had a positive counterpart, Seneca, who transmitted to the young infant an exquisite cultural training.
With all this cultural baggage, an adolescent Nero manages to be a prince at just thirteen years old, largely thanks to the tricks of his mother Agrippina, who cajoled Claudius to name him adopted son.
Far from the megalomaniac and depressing image of his last days, everything seems to indicate that the young prince nero, instructed in the noble Hellenic arts (influence that is demonstrated throughout his entire political career) and looking good-looking and healthy, he recovered the old Roman traditions, offering fun and games to the people, in which they participated, being highly acclaimed for this, especially in the more popular classes.
Nero emperor of Rome
Later, the young prince would become Emperor to the death of Claudio, with only seventeen years.
It is at this time that Seneca's influence on his instruction transcends his political life, reinforcing the ties with the Senate and undertaking some reforms in the Roman city that gave it some frugal years of splendor.
It was in these first years of government, when the insidious Agrippina, mother of nero, He meddled in state affairs trying to manipulate all his acts both in his public life and in his passionate busy private life.
The senators and closest friends did not hesitate to remind the Emperor of the way his mother was trying to turn him into her puppet particular.
Agrippina as the cause of Nero's "wickedness"
So, the constant interference of his mother in his political and private actions, next to murmurs of conspiracy that circulated around her, by which apparently she intended to get rid of Nero to erect a new emperor to her british brother, they brought out the worst of the hitherto adored Nero.
It would not be long before the emperor poison his brother in the middle of a party and it would not take long for his mother to accompany him in such a dismal fate. But by then, the poison of his mother had already nested in Nero and the texts and representations show us a very different man from his first years of government.
A Nero deformed by a life of excess with a character sour with his peers, irate and always worried about betrayal, which he saw everywhere.
its Greek influence and its desire for reform, in the style of the old Hellenic monarchies, they were taken to the extreme.
They are largely attributed Fire of Rome in AD 64, with which he apparently intended to pave the Urbs to erect a new Greek style in the heart of Rome, although in this matter we must be very cautious because many sources lie about what actually happened, a topic that we will see in a next article.
NeroEclipsed by his ideal of beauty, he confiscated properties from the nobles and increased the amount of taxes in order to pay for his reforms and with all this, the discontent of the nobility began to grow gradually.
Self-proclaimed patron of arts and cultureNero squandered the state coffers to carry out the greatest literary and musical games and recitals, in which the emperor himself participated, receiving great praise.
We do not know to this day, if indeed Nero was such a capable man in such struggles or was he only the victim of false flattery, but soon the "success”Went to his head.
Nero's time of terror
As he squandered the fortune of the Roman empire In satisfying their own ego, the nobility publicly showed discontent, and this irritated a Nero who had long since severed his ties with reality.
Then began a time of terror and persecution, of indiscriminate murders and the disappearances of notable figures such as Seneca (forced to commit suicide), Petronius or Lucanus.
The rebellion of the regions against the emperor
Seeing the situation, the provinces of the empirethey began to rebel against their tyranny. Regions like those of Britain, Judea, Hispania and Gaul would stand up to him.
The death of Nero
A new coup attempt was organized to overthrow the ruler.Julio Vindice, Sulpicio Galba and Otón organized a rebellion against Nero.
The Praetorians joined them, as well as the Senate itself, which decideddepose the emperor in AD 68. Due to the situation, Nero fled the city and seeing that he was going to be arrested, ordered one of his secretaries towill kill him on June 6, 68 in one of his villas, telling himself that in his last breath he even said: "What a great artist dies with me!”.
His death would give way to an unstable stage in Rome in which power was discussed betweenfour emperors: Galba, Vitellius, Otto and Vespasian.