The Verona Congress: the end of Metternich's Europe

The Verona Congress: the end of Metternich's Europe

In September 1822 the last of the congresses of the Restoration. On this occasion, the leading role would fall on Spain. The European powers would meet to decide the future of the Iberian country.

Spain had a constitutional monarchy in 1822 run by a liberal government. After escaping from the Napoleonic yoke, the Spanish decided to draft their own constitution in 1812, which they baptized as “La Pepa”. They decided end your relationship with absolutism but not with the monarchy. They called Ferdinand VII, which would become known as "the desired”, To act as head of state and swear in the constitution. The monarch, on the other hand, disagreed with the liberal values ​​that governed the country and went to the holy alliance to restore their absolute power.

Thus, in the Verona Congress, the allies decide to listen to the requests of Fernando VII. In January 1823, everyone, except Great Britain, sent a letter requesting a change in the political orientation of the Government. Obviously, that note is ignored by the liberal leaders, which causes that On April 7, 1823, the Holy Alliance convened to the "One Hundred Thousand Sons of St. Louis" for restore the absolute monarchy in Spain. This army, led by the Duke of Angouleme, was far superior to the defense that the Spanish Government could plant, so they achieved their objective of return the absolute throne to Fernando VII.

Although the objective of the congress was fulfilled, it was the end of the Europe designed by Metternich at Congress of Vienna. The differences between the different members and the fear that any of them, especially Russia and Austria, could achieve an excessive prominence made the “Congress Europe”.

It also coincided with the deaths of Castlereagh and Alexander I. Their respective successors had very different interests. In the case of the first, Canning, a politician who promoted the independence movements of Latin America and Greece. And as for the new Russian czar, Nicholas II, there was a change in foreign policy. It was sought to bring positions closer and solve problems with Great Britain.

Ultimately, what this phase of history made clear is that the absolutist model had its days numbered. Revolutions began to break out across Europe calling for a change in policy. That change would take time to come and would focus, above all, in the nations that most supported the Restoration.

Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.

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