November 8 and 9, 1923 They were two key days for Contemporary History. It is a date that is not usually remembered much, but those days there was a coup led by Adolf Hitler that would have great repercussions in the history of Europe.
In Germany, he is known as the Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, while he is commonly called Brewery Putsch. It was a critical moment, which served the future German dictator as a basis to reaffirm and reinforce his theories against the weak government of the Weimar Republic, which would allow him to reach power ten years later.
The Treaty of Versailles signed in 1919 economically drowning Germany. Hitler and the other radical leaders of the spectrum of German politics advocated to stop complying with what was dictated from France and to impose German sovereignty. In addition, due to the debts that the State had, inflation soared, generating much poverty, layoffs and misery in Bavaria.
Seeing how, little by little, the Weimar Republic growing weaker, the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) met in a Munich city brewery to plan a change in government. This practice was common in breweries, where hundreds of people gathered to criticize current issues or listen to political rallies.
Hitler had planned the coup for September 29, 1923, but decided to delay it to take advantage of the riots that were taking place in Bavaria due to the poverty of the region. Thus, on November 8, he broke into a political rally that he was offering at the brewery Burgerbräukeller the governor of Bavaria, Gustav von Kahr, before 3,000 people. Thanks to the Assault Sections (SA), they managed to block the exits and proclaim the start of the revolution.
With the support of the troops of Ernst Röhm and Erich Ludendorff, Adolf Hitler decided to march on the city of Munich, in order to take full control of Bavaria. His plan was to follow a system similar to that of Italy, by which he would form an independent republic in Bavaria. to face the Weimar Republic In Berlin. The uprising troops managed to enter the Ministry of Defense and secure it.
But this plan did not last long. Due to a security breach, several local leaders managed to escape and ordered the different police chiefs to take retaliation against Hitler and his allies. Both sides started a shootout, in which the NSDAP leaders were wounded. After several days of searching, the Police managed to arrest Hitler, Röhm and Ludendorff. However, many other rebels managed to flee to Austria.
In the period that Hitler was imprisoned, wrote the famous book that would serve as inspiration to refound the party and as a basis for the new generations: Mein kampf. That is why this coup was so important in recent history. It resulted in the rebirth of Hitler's extremist doctrine, placing him in the position of a martyr and facilitating his return to the political scene years later.
In addition, it did not serve as a push to the government of the Weimar Republic, since it did not change course, nor did it improve the economic and labor situation in Germany. All this would end up unleashing the worst war in history: the WWII.
Passionate about History, he has a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication. Since he was little he loved history and ended up exploring the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries above all.