The Spanish people have had two short periods of time in which what reigned was the republic. April 14 is one of them, when the anniversary of the proclamation of the Second Republic, a period of time that would give way to one of the most terrible chapters in our history.
The reasons that caused this change of political regime were diverse. First of all, highlight the fall of the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera in January 1930, regime that had been supported by the then king of Spain, Alfonso XIII. Because of this support, the working class considered him a symbol of oppression to which the people had been subjected.
The Government of that time, chaired by Damaso BerenguerHe was trying to return to the situation before the dictatorship but it was completely impossible. The Restoration was a failure, since he did not reinstate the Constitution that had governed the country until the proclamation of the dictatorship, nor did he call elections, something that the republicans continually requested. All this made public opinion was clearly against the monarchy.
The August 17, 1930 there was a meeting that ended with the union pact between the various republican sectors of the nation, promoted by the Republican Alliance. It was called the Pact of San Sebastián. It was signed by both the republican personalities who came as from various formations that were against the monarchy.
The political parties PSOE and UGT they joined the pact shortly thereafter. Personalities such as Alexander Lerroux, founder of the Radical Party,Manuel Azana of radical-socialism,Fernando de los Rios on the part of the socialists,Carrasco Formiguera by left-wing Catalanism and Niceto Alcala Zamora by moderate republicanism, who would be elected president after the signing of the pact.
Shortly after, in December 1930, they tried to give a Coup to establish a republic. Supported by the general strike that would take place in those days, the garrison of Jaca, under the command of Captain Fermín Galán and Lieutenant Ángel García Hernández, they decided to rise up.
However, luck was not with them. The general strike was not finally held, the uprising took place three days before the scheduled date and in addition, the government was aware of everything, so the coup ended in failure. Both were taken prisoner and shot shortly after, with which they began to be considered as martyrs of the Republic. Due to this uprising, all those who had signed the Pact of San Sebastián were imprisoned.
The king decided to end the contest by summoning municipal elections for Sunday, April 12, 1931. What the ballot boxes showed was the clear discontent that the people had with the monarchy, since there was a clear victory of the republican candidacies in the main cities of the country. However, after making the total count of the votes, almost 30,000 monarchical councilors came out compared to almost 9,000 Republicans, but what counted was the result in the big cities.
The euphoria for the proclamation of the Republic it was palpable. The Monarchy gave way to a new form of government that began with enthusiasm on the part of its supporters. While the people were celebrating, the deposed king, Alfonso XIII, left the palace without formally abdicating and left the country in voluntary exile, fixing his residence in Rome. As head of government, Niceto Alcala Zamora. He surrounded himself with ministers of clear anticlerical and liberal tendency. Among them, some of those who had participated in the Pact of San Sebastián stand out, such as Manuel Azaña in the Ministry of War, Fernando de los Ríos in justice, or Miguel Maura in the Interior.
Tuesday April 14 numerous cities continued to celebrate the republican triumph. The first in proclaim the Republic was the town of Eibar, who quickly raised the tricolor flag (red, yellow, purple). Throughout the morning the rest of the towns would begin to hang it. At noon he would rise in Madrid, the capital. This gave way to a new political period full of new illusions but which was full political and social instabilities what would lead to the Spanish Civil War.
With a degree in Journalism and Audiovisual Communication, since I was a child I have been attracted to the world of information and audiovisual production. Passion for informing and being informed of what is happening in every corner of the planet. Likewise, I am pleased to be part of the creation of an audiovisual product that will later entertain or inform people. My interests include cinema, photography, the environment and, above all, history. I consider it essential to know the origin of things to know where we come from and where we are going. Special interest in curiosities, mysteries and anecdotal events in our history.