Unlike other events, causes of the Industrial Revolution They go back to events that occurred several years ago, beginning with the great Commercial Revolution, caused by the European expansion of the 16th and 17th centuries, at which time close trade relations were created with Africa, Asia and America.
What are the causes of the Industrial Revolution?
Due to this expansion, a great demand began to be generated in the European continent that, in order to satisfy it, the industries found themselves in the need to grow, especially when only domestic service was carried out, that is, the craftsman who worked at home or workshop and that he received the raw material from the merchant and then sold him the finished product.
By not providing enough, the first machines were created, but at the same time factories appear, where more people worked, producing much more in less time, starting here commercial capitalism, which in the future would give life to the banks.
But for there to be a great demand a large population was necessary, and that is why the Commercial Revolution goes hand in hand with the Demographic Revolution, another of the central causes of the Industrial Revolution.
By 1800, Europe was populated by 187 million people and by 1900, it already exceeded 400 million, and this without counting the large number of people who emigrated to other countries and continents. Britain went from 16.5 million inhabitants to 41.5 million in the 19th century, and several were the factors for this to happen.
After the plagues that struck Europe In previous centuries, various advances, not only medical, but also in hygiene, made possible an excessive increase in the European population.
Causes of the Demographic Revolution
The causes of the Demographic Revolution could be summarized as follows:
Reduction of infant mortality (United Kingdom goes from 26.9% to 18.2% and France from 27.7% to 19.5%).
Greater hygiene care with the appearance of soap, chlorine treatment of city water and sewage systems.
This growth could have been even greater, had there not been three major brakes:
Epidemics: After the plague, cholera appeared, which claimed millions of lives in various stages until the end of the 19th century.
Famines: Between 1846 and 1848 the last one happened in Ireland, which left the island practically empty.
High infant mortalityAlthough we mention the decline in some countries, in others such as Russia or the Mediterranean countries, the high rates of infant mortality claimed millions of children's lives during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The countries that were industrializing, maintained very high growth rates despite what we mentioned above, and we must add emigration, with England being the leader with 17 million people who left, mainly to the US.
Transportation Revolution in the Industrial Revolution
The Transportation Revolution, another of the centers in the Industrial Revolution, allowed the massive transfer of people, both between continents but also between the countryside and the city.
Revolution of Agriculture in the Industrial Revolution
And this is where we go to Agriculture Revolution, that if it had not been modernized, it would be difficult for the Industrial to happen. In the eighteenth century the population in the cities of England and Wales doubled, agriculture was responsible for keeping the large number of new people in the territories.
Four were his contributions: food, market, capital and men and it consisted largely of technical progress with irrigation, fertilizers, machinery, and crop rotation. The increase in the price of cereals and with it, the increase in family income, began to generate a large internal market.
The most important changes were, first, the enclosure of the fields (and the disappearance of communal lands from private property) that started a new capitalist mentality, which caused that the workers, unable to acquire land and without employment in the countryside, moved to the cities to enroll as salaried industrial workers.
Secondly, the change in crop types, such as the Norfolk (invented by Charles Townshend), which consisted of a four-leaf plantation rotation, alternating between four different products that were generally turnips, barley or oats, clover and wheat, which, when cultivated in that order, improved the yield of the land.
The third fundamental change is the introduction of new tools, like the cast iron plow or the mechanical seeder, reducing the effort of the worker and granting a higher production speed.
The Scientific Revolution of the Industrial Revolution
Finally, the Scientific Revolution It occupied a place of importance during the 18th century, by allowing new sources of energy and machines to be created, which ended up favoring the work of man.
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